Puffiness after exercise

Pain in muscles after sporting activities-norm or rejection? Some argue that there should be no unpleasant sensations, others that they are inevitable. Where is the truth?

Stiffness in movements, inability to bend or turn in the morning after exercise can fight off any desire to once again come into the hall. If the fuse does not disappear, a logical question arises: WHEN should I go to the fitness club next time?

First of all, one must understand the mechanism of the occurrence of pain caused by physical stress. Specialists identify two kinds of unpleasant sensations: acute and delayed.

Acute muscle pain occurs during or immediately after exercise andcan last from two to four hours. The reason for its appearance is the accumulation in the muscles of metabolic products: hydrogen ions and lactic acid. They provoke an increase in pressure in the active muscle, which increases the flow of fluid from the intercellular space. The growth of volumes leads to compression of the nerve endings, which causes acute pain. What can cause:

training with extreme loads, work to failure;

incorrect or too short warm-up, and also its absence;

unpreparedness of muscles for the chosen kind of loads.

Late (retarded) painful sensations arise in a day or two. And they can last five days, and ten, and some sports doctors say that pain can be disturbed for two weeks. The main reason for their appearance is damage to muscle fibers. If you ripped the skin, this place will be sad; the muscles are the same. Most often, breaks occur during movements that stretch the muscles (any exercise is an alternation of contraction and stretching). To damage the fibers, the nerve endings first react. After classes in the areas of rupture, there is edema, which hampers the removal of decay products from the tissues, which increases pain. Late pains result from:

training, which was resumed after a long break;

exercises performed with large weights (dumbbells, weights);

occupations in which the time of stretching muscles is greater than when they are in a shortened state (jumping, running downhill).

But regardless of when the pain has appeared, it plays the role of a trigger mechanism for carrying out the transformations in the muscle. After receiving a signal during or after training,the body understands that the body has not been prepared for this kind of load, and tries to do everything possible to prevent the next time injuring the fibers, for example, to build up the muscle, making it thicker and hardier. And with a reserve: if the existing capacity could not be protected from damage, it is not enough to create as much - you need more.

Thus, the pain is a kind of indicator of a successful training. If there is no microtrauma, do not increase the muscle volume.

Are unpleasant sensations in the muscles of beginners? If it's about strength training, then yes. Another matter is their degree. HIt's worth doing so that in the morning it was impossible to get out of bed. The body should receive not the maximum, butoptimum load. This can be compared with food: if the portions are small, then the hunger will not disappear and the strength will not increase. And if you overeat, instead of a surge of energy there will be lethargy and heaviness in the stomach.

Should I wait for the pain after cardio? To understand this, you need to represent the difference between power and fat burning activities. In the body there is two types of muscles - red and white. The former are able to work for a long time, but for this theyoxygen is needed. Red muscles have a small volume, which is almost not increased with constant training. Fuel for them are fats, so people with these muscles are tight and lean.

White fibers, on the contrary, are quickly fatigued(able to work for about 30 seconds), but massive and growing rapidly. Fuel they are stored carbohydrates, and oxygen is not required. This means that white muscles can work at full power, without waiting for the heart and lungs to crack open. However, carbohydrates quickly end, and in the process of their utilization, lactic acid and hydrogen ions are formed, which cause muscle pain and swelling.

When strength training in the body, mostly white muscles work, and during cardio-loading - red ones. But not always. The fact is that there is one more division of muscles in the body - according to the rate of their contraction .

Most red fibers are slow, and white ones are fast. However, some white muscles mayslower than the red ones. Especially often this is noted in beginners. So it turns out that a beginner athlete during cardio training, gradually increasing the tempo on a treadmill or stationary bike. involves alternately one, then another type of fiber (first turn on white, and later red). As a result, some work, as they are accustomed to, burning fat, while others, when processing carbohydrates, produce lactic acid and hydrogen ions. In addition, if some white fiber turns out to be quite slow, then the faster red ones simply tear it apart. It is clear that after such cardio training the muscles will ache.

Great interruptions in training bring the body more harm than good.
What can I do to get back to work faster, reducing post-training pains?

A full workout. Regardless of whether you have a powertraining or cardio, the muscles need to be warmed up first, so that they become elastic - this will avoid severe damage. In addition, thanks to the prepared capillaries, the withdrawal of the decay products from the muscles will accelerate.

The warm-up should consist of several parts:

  • preheating of muscles (hot showers, warming ointments, self-massage);
  • aerobic part (walking on a treadmill, pedaling on a stationary bike at a calm pace);
  • stretching (stretching or joint exercises).

technical or complex coordinated movements related to the upcoming activity.

Completing the lesson, the load and intensity should be reduced gradually. The abrupt discontinuation of training disrupts the decay process, which leads to increased pain and longer duration. To prevent this from happening:

  • dedicate 5-15 minutes to a low intensity activity, gradually slowing down the pace until the stop;
  • perform stretching. After class, the stretching should be different than before the exercise: the exercises must be done slowly, smoothly, gently increasing the amplitude (it should be such that it does not cause pain, but relaxation in the stretched muscle). It is advisable to supplement the exercise with breathing but the system of yogis: a long, smooth breath for three to five strokes of the heart, then the same exhalation and a short delay in exhalation. And on exhalation it is necessary to represent, as heat spreads on muscles, weakening them;
  • Take a warm or contrast shower. Walk through the jet but to all muscles, separately warm up the collar zone (it is responsible for the muscle tone of the whole body).
  • if you want, drink a protein shake. He will give additional material for the restoration of the destroyed muscular structures;
  • do not forget about the water. Drink it in small sips to avoid excessive condensation of blood plasma and accelerate the metabolism. By the way, drinking regime should be observed not only after class, but also during .

Is the training finished? It is not yet time to relax: in the following days, it is necessary to attend classes, but already restorative. The most effective in this regard is swimming. Do not forget to do a 10-15-minute stretch in the morning and evening (preferably after taking a hot shower). Reduce the pain syndrome will also help visit the sauna and sauna (on the day of training there is better not to go: heat gives an additional burden on the heart and the body as a whole). You can massage the body with your hands or water, relax the bath with sea salt well.

Based on the materials of the magazine "Pohudey"