Puffiness in the head

Edema of the brain - a pathological condition, accompanied by the accumulation of fluid in the brain tissues.

Causes of developing cerebral edema

The following diseases can lead to edema of the brain:
  • craniocerebral trauma;
  • brain tumor;
  • stroke of the brain (ischemic, hemorrhagic);
  • inflammatory processes in the brain and membranes (encephalitis, meningitis);
  • somatic diseases (cardiovascular pathology, severe infections, burn disease);
  • an allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock);
  • intoxication (alcoholic, narcotic).
The main factors that contribute to the development of brain edema:
  • oxygen starvation of the brain;
  • increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood;
  • low protein in the blood plasma;
  • violation of electrolyte equilibrium.

Clinical picture, symptoms of cerebral edema

Brain edema can be local and common(generalized). Clinical manifestations of cerebral edema are diverse and depend on the duration, localization, prevalence, severity of the pathological process.

With edema of the brain, there are 3 main groups of symptoms:
  • symptoms associated with intracranial hypertension;
  • focal symptoms;
  • stem symptoms.

The increased intracranial pressure indicates a bursting headache, nausea, vomiting, a decrease in the level of consciousness.

Intracranial hypertension can lead to the development of convulsive seizures.

Focal symptoms - loss of certainfunctions. When localizing cerebral edema in certain zones, the function of these areas will be violated, therefore, those functions for which the affected area is responsible fall out.

Focal symptoms include paresis, paralysis, violation of sensitivity, vision, speech disorders.

When the cerebellum is damaged, there is a disturbance of balance and gait.

In the brain stem are vital centersrespiration and palpitation. If the cerebral edema affects this area, cardiovascular disorders develop, breathing and thermoregulation are disrupted, reflexes fade and the level of consciousness decreases, convulsive seizures may develop.

Diagnosis of cerebral edema is based on complaints of the patient (if the patient is conscious), examination data, evaluation of the neurological status, results of additional examination methods.

At a neurological examination of the patient pay attention to unconditioned reflexes, loss of functions, disorders of various spheres.

When examining the fundus, which is performed by the oculist, you can determine the swelling of the nipples of the optic nerves - one of the symptoms of brain edema.

To assess the concomitant pathology affectingthe course of cerebral edema, it is necessary to conduct laboratory research methods. It is necessary to conduct a general blood test, determine the level of protein, electrolytes (potassium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine) in the blood plasma.

If cerebral edema is suspected, spinal puncture, angiography of cerebral vessels, computer or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is performed.

Computer or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain can help determine the magnitude and localization of cerebral edema.

The list of additional research methods that can be performed can be expanded depending on the leading cause of cerebral edema.

To eliminate hypoxia, it is necessary to carry out oxygen therapy - the artificial introduction of oxygen into the body through the respiratory tract.

With edema of the brain, a simple and effective measure will be local hypothermia. To do this, head with bubbles with ice or other sources of cold.

The flow of excess fluid from the brain tissue is facilitated by intravenous injection of hyperbaric solutions (10% sodium chloride solution, 40% glucose solution).

The use of drugs that have a diuretic effect, helps to eliminate cerebral edema. Assign furosemide, lazix, sulfurous magnesia, urea, mannitol.

To reduce vascular permeability and prevent further progression of the edema, appoint glucocorticosteroids (prednisolone, dexamethasone).

If swelling has spread to the trunk region, it is necessary to maintain normal body temperature and vital functions - breathing and palpitation.

In some cases, the only way to save the patient's life is surgery - trepanation of the skull.

Complications and consequences of cerebral edema

The most formidable complication of cerebral edema is a fatal outcome due to the defeat of vital centers located in the brain stem.

In the late period, cerebral edema can cause dementia (dementia).

Edema of the brain, as well as other organic pathology of the brain, can become the basis for the development of depression.

In the presence of pathologies that can lead to edemabrain, prescribe diuretics (furosemide, sulfurous magnesia). These drugs prevent the accumulation of excess fluid in the brain tissues and prevent the development of cerebral edema.