Drops in the nose that remove the swelling of the nasal mucosa
On the mucosa of the nasal cavity (and perennialsinuses) say a lot. However, not all and far from always understand what is actually going on. We will talk about the peculiarities of the structure of the nasal mucosa, its main tasks and, of course, how to treat it and restore it after various diseases.
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Just about the complex: the anatomical structure
The mucous membrane covers all the hollow organs,which communicate with the external environment. It lays the auditory passages, the inner surface of the eyelids, urogenital organs, respiratory organs and, of course, the nasopharynx.
Mucous is composed of three layers. The innermost layer is the smooth muscle fibers, the middle layer is built of connective tissue, dotted with the inclusion of lymphatic nodules. The upper or outer layer is the epithelium. It is he who is responsible for performing the main functions of the mucosa.
There are no blood vessels in the epithelium. Nutrition and metabolism occur at the expense of the adjacent connective tissue. The epithelium of the nasal mucosa consists of several types of cells:
- ciliated cells, which are generously provided with cilia, capable of rapid movement;
- goblet cells that produce mucus. They are sometimes called unicellular glands;
- short and long intercalating epitheliocytes, which are located between the ciliated cells. At the top of the epitheliocytes, too, there are microvilli.
Where does nasal mucus come from?
Very interesting is the question of the origin of the nosesecret. Where does the mucus in the nasal cavity come from? It's all about the goblet cells. They are able to accumulate granules of a special substance - a mucinogen, which can absorb water. Due to this, the cells gradually swell, and the mucinogen turns into mucin, the main component of the nasal and other mucus.
"Thick" cells become similar toa glass: in a narrow part there is only a nucleus, and in an expanded one - mucus. When accumulating a large amount of mucus, the upper part of the goblet cell is destroyed, and the mucus is discharged outside, into the lumen of the organ.
During the inflammatory process, gobletcells greatly increase in size, and the process of mucus formation becomes too productive. So in the nasopharynx is formed an excessive amount of mucus, as a result of which there are abundant mucous discharge from the nose (or productive, wet cough).
Miracles in the sieve: how do cilia work?
No less fascinating process, constantly occurring in our body, is the inconspicuous movement of cilia in the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses.
Each ciliary cell - namely them, as wealready found out, the epithelium of the nasal mucosa is extremely rich - it is supplied with a lot of cilia. On average, one cell contains about 250-300 cilia, in which microtubules are located. The intricacies of microtubules allow the cilia to be in constant motion: in one second they manage to do 6-8 strokes. In this case, they are all produced in one direction - from the threshold of the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx.
Maintain proper ciliary workThe apparatus is also assisted by environmental conditions. Cilia of ciliated epithelium completely perform their functions at a temperature of 28-32 ° C and a pH of nasal secretion of 5.5-6.5. The fall or, conversely, an increase in temperature in the nasal cavity and a change in the acidity of the mucus contribute to the cessation of the oscillation of the cilia. This leads to disruption of the entire mucociliary apparatus and the development of inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the nasal mucosa. Let's dwell on them in more detail.
And the most common problem with the nasal mucosa is puffiness. Edema of the mucous nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is the basis of many diseases of the nasopharynx. How does it develop?
The basic mechanism in the development of edemathe nasal mucosa is considered an infection. The ciliated epithelium is an ideal environment for the life of pathogens. Viruses, bacteria and fungi penetrate with a current of inhaled air. With a normally functioning immunity and a fully functioning scintillator, all microbes are retained in the cilia and washed out with nasal secretions. Every second, thousands of different microorganisms settle in the cilia, and in the vast majority of cases they do not do us harm.
However, with a decrease in body defenses(for example, as a result of hypothermia), microbes begin to develop in the nasal mucosa. The same outcome is possible if the viruses and bacteria that enter the nasal cavity are particularly aggressive. By the way, respiratory viruses that provoke ARVI are related to such pathogens.
It is interesting that when the supercooling is not uncommonrapid and violent reaction of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. This is due to the existence of so-called reflexogenic connections between the nasal mucosa and the feet.
The inflammatory process that began in the nasopharynx firstly leads to an expansion of the blood vessels, as a consequence, to the onset of edema.
Edema of the mucosa due to histamine release -the result of an allergic reaction. As the allergens can act a lot of substances: from the pollen of plants to ticks living in an old mattress. Despite a very special mechanism of development, the allergy symptoms are very similar to the manifestations of the common cold. One of the characteristic signs of an allergic edema of the nasal mucosa is itching, but it often appears in viral rhinitis. That's why the doctors, and even more so the patients themselves are not always able to quickly and accurately identify the cause of the common cold and distinguish banal SARS from allergies to ragweed pollens.
Treatment of mucosal edema due to allergies is a bit more complicated than with colds. As a rule, the therapy scheme includes:
- alpha-adrenomimetics, narrowing vessels and restoring breathing;
- antihistamines, or antiallergic drugs;
- intranasal corticosteroids (Nazonex, Fliksonase and others).
In addition, the swelling of the nasal mucosa can be caused by trauma and other causes.
What is dangerous for the swelling of the nasal mucosa?
Swelling of the nasal mucosa can befeel almost instantly. Expanded vessels lead to difficulty breathing, and there is stiffness. The more swelling, the more pronounced is the violation of breathing. But this is only the external side of the pathological process. Edema leads to much more serious troubles than the banal disruption of nasal breathing.
So, the swelling of the nasal mucosa has three main consequences:
- Development of inflammation of the nasal mucosa - rhinitis. Rhinitis, as a rule, has a viral origin, and is manifested by abundant secretions and sneezing.
- Development of sinusitis - inflammation of the mucosa of the maxillary sinuses.
The mechanism of sinusitis is simple: because of the excessively swollen mucous membrane of the nose, the suture, which connects the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses, narrows and sometimes completely blocks. As a result, the drainage of mucus from the maxillary sinuses becomes difficult or blocked and the infectious process develops very quickly.
- Development of respiratory diseases.
Due to the violation of breathing, a person is often forced toto breathe with the mouth. As a result, cold air gets into the respiratory tract, besides, it is full of many pathogenic microorganisms. And most of the diseases of the lower respiratory tract develop, including the most formidable infection - pneumonia.
To avoid consequences, the swelling of the nasal mucosa needs to be treated on time in both the child and the adult.
How to remove the swelling of the nasal mucosa?
Cardinal means for combating puffinessnasal mucosa - preparations from the group of alpha-adrenomimetics. They are also called vasoconstrictors or decongestants. These drugs stimulate adrenoreceptors, which are rich in the mucous membrane of the nose. As a result, the vessels in the connective tissue become narrower and the puffiness decreases significantly.
Alpha-adrenomimetics are produced in two main forms of release: drops in the nose and tablets or syrups.
Anti-edema in the nose
Intranasal drops in the nose are known and popular. These include preparations naphazoline (Naphthyzin), xylometazoline (Galazolin), oxymetazoline (Nazivin), tramazolin (Lazolvan Reno).
Note that Naphthyzin is significantly inferior toeffectiveness and safety of all other drugs. This is due to the fact that it acts quite a short time (only about 2-3 hours), and also negatively affects the mucosa. It is after the use of Naphthyzin that complaints about the drying out of the nasal mucosa are not uncommon. Relatively carefully refers to the gentle ciliated epithelium xylometazoline, and the most mild effect on it has oxymetazoline and tramazolin. The latter, by the way, lasts longer than all other drops in the nose - up to 8 hours.
Applying intranasal vasoconstrictors, you can notforget that you can drip them no longer than 5-7 days. Medicamentous rhinitis does not take long to wait, and then new problems with the mucous membrane of the nose can not be avoided.
Along with local, that is intranasalforms of internal alpha-adrenomimetics. Just like drops in the nose, pills or syrups stimulate the alpha-adrenoreceptors and contribute to the narrowing of the vessels and the removal of swelling of the nasal mucosa. However, unlike drops, oral medications can be taken for a longer period.
As a rule, vasoconstrictor internal remedies are produced in combination with other components, in particular, antipyretic and antiallergic and are used for colds and flu.
As complex decongestants we will nameTeraFlu, containing vitamin C, paracetamol, phenyramin and alpha-adrenomimetic phenylephrine. In addition, there are also combinations with an antitussive drug dextromethofan, for example, Terasil-D. It contains dextromethorphan, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine. Koldakt, another complex anti-edema drug, contains chlorphenamine and phenylpropanolamine, perfectly narrowing the vessels.
Phytopreparations and homeopathy against edema of the nasal cavity
It is impossible not to mention the possibilities of phytotherapy. Unlike synthetic medicines, vegetable can be taken without looking at the calendar. They are safe and effective enough, especially for systemic, regular use.
- drops in nose Pinosol. which contain essential oils of pine, mint, eucalyptus, thymol and vitamin E.
This combination has anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effect. However, if you are inclined to allergic reactions, Pinosol should not be used;
- tablets and drops for internal use Sinupret.
German herbal remediesswelling of the nasal mucosa and contributing to its recovery. Sinupret is allowed for use by children, which adds many points to its benefits.
Sometimes as local decongestantsdrugs are used homeopathic sprays in the nose, for example, Delufen. Euphorbium compositum. However, it should be remembered that they do not begin to act, as a rule, not at once, but in some people their effect may not be noticeable at all. In addition, as an additional means to reduce puffiness, homeopathic tablets are used for resorption. Most often, the choice is based on Cinnabsin (produced by the German Homeopathic Union), a little less often on Renel (Hel, Germany).
Dry nasal mucosa: a problem that needs to be addressed
The cause of dryness of the nasal mucosa can be:
- infectious process in the nasopharynx;
- allergic reaction;
- excessively dry air in the room;
- hormonal changes in the body (for example, during pregnancy);
- drug rhinitis;
- atrophic rhinitis and others.
Despite the apparent harmlessness, drynessNasal mucosa can lead to serious consequences. The drying of the ciliated epithelium leads to disruption of the ciliary apparatus, and, consequently, to stasis of the nasal secretion. As a result, inflammatory diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses develop - rhinitis and sinusitis. Inaction threatens the transition of acute inflammation to chronic.
Meanwhile, to eliminate the dryness of the nasal mucosa is not so difficult. There are several tools that effectively cope with this symptom.
- Saline solutions.
The beneficial effect of isotonic solution onthe nasal mucosa is proven in clinical trials. A solution of sodium chloride at a concentration of 0.9% effectively moisturizes the nasal mucosa, dilutes the nasal secretion and restores mucociliary clearance. Recall that under it is understood a mechanism that provides local protection of the nasopharyngeal mucosa from infection and other external factors.
Picking up saline solution, you can stop on the drops and spray. The most famous drugs in Russia include AquaMaris, Humer, Dolphin and others.
- Essential oils.
Oils of eucalyptus, fir, mint and other plantshave a bactericidal and moisturizing effect. But do not put them directly on the mucous membrane of the nose - they are too concentrated and can cause irritation and even a burn.
It is much safer and more effective to perform inhalation treatment by dissolving the oil in several milliliters of water.
- Baby Oils.
A fairly effective way of moistening the mucous membrane can be regular application of baby oil.
- Ointments for the nose.
Although ointments for the nose and are not designed forhumidification of the mucous membrane, their regular application several times a day perfectly contributes to moisturizing. It is best to choose neutral ointments without a vasoconstrictor component, for example, Pinosol ointment for the nose (contraindicated for allergies to medicinal plants), Oxolin ointment.
If the dryness of the nose is observed against the background of othersintranasal drugs, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit and harm from their use. Vasoconstrictor drops in the nose should be immediately canceled or, if used less than a week, be changed to alternative.
How to restore the nasal mucosa?
One of the most urgent problemsotorhinolaryngology - restoration of the nasal mucosa. After all, during some diseases, for example, rhinitis, especially chronic, as well as medicamentous or atrophic inflammatory process, structural changes in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa can occur. A frequent consequence of this is a disruption or complete cessation of the ciliary apparatus. And, consequently, the following complications are chronic atrophic rhinitis, sinusitis, frontalitis and so on. How can you prevent this and restore the mucosa quickly and effectively?
The spectrum of drugs for the nasal cavity is not very extensive, and for the recovery of the mucosa after inflammatory diseases and injuries are used already familiar to us drugs. We list them:
- Saline solutions with a sodium chloride content of 0.9% (AquaMaris, Humer, Dolphin, Physiomer and other means for nasal lavage).
- Derinat. The drug is based on sodium deoxyribonucleate, which has a pronounced reparative, i.e., healing effect.
- Edas 131. Russian homeopathic preparation, which reduces inflammation and accelerates the healing of the nasal mucosa.
- Other intranasal homeopathic remedies (Delufen, Euphorbium).
- Pinosol drops and ointment for the nose.
Used to restore integrity andfunctions of the nasal mucosa and folk remedies. So, aloe juice is an excellent healing property, which is instilled in 4-6 drops in each nasal passage 3-4 times a day for 1-2 weeks.
A great remedy for combating dryness and irritation of the mucous membrane is sea buckthorn oil. A few drops of oil 2-3 times a day will help to quickly repair the damaged mucous membrane of the nose.
It is often recommended to use drugspropolis as anti-inflammatory and healing agents in diseases of the nose. Note that the tincture of propolis, which is sold in pharmacies, is not suitable for this purpose: in undiluted form it can cause a burn of the mucous membrane, and in diluted will cause dryness and irritation.
Therefore, before proceeding with the restorationnasal mucosa, consult a doctor or pharmacist and choose only safe medications. And your cilia will certainly begin to work in full force.