Pulmonary edema diagnosis
- Most often, the symptomatology occurs at night, when the person is lying down.
- Sharply arisen (with acute edema of the lungs) ordyspnea, feeling of lack of air (with slow development of pulmonary edema). Dyspnoea grows, goes into choking, increases in prone position, with the slightest physical exertion. The patient tends to take a forced position (sitting with a leaning forward) to facilitate breathing.
- Pressing pain in the chest.
- Increased palpitations.
- A cold, sticky sweat appears on the skin.
- Skin covers acquire a cyanotic or gray shade.
- Cough - at first dry, then with allocation of foamy sputum pink color (because of veins of a blood).
- Rapid breathing, as the edema builds up and the lungs fill with liquid, breathing becomes bubbling, audible at a distance.
- Dizziness, general weakness.
- The patient is nervous, frightened.
- With the growth of edema - confusion, a drop in blood pressure, a weak pulse, may not be determined.
Depending on the causes of the development of the disease, there are:
- cardiogenic pulmonary edema - the one that is causedheart diseases. The most common pulmonary edema complicates the course of myocardial infarction, may also develop on the background of valvular heart disease, arrhythmias (heart rhythm disorders), etc. At the heart of -. Dysfunction of the left heart, which leads to stagnation of blood in the pulmonary circulation and the output of the liquid portion of the plasma blood to the lungs;
- non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema - the one that is caused by other causes (eg, liver disease, kidney disease, exposure to toxic substances, etc.).
By the time of development distinguish:
- acute pulmonary edema - develops within 2 to 4 hours;
- protracted pulmonary edema - develops within a few hours, lasts a day or more;
- lightning pulmonary edema is a sudden onset, a lethal outcome comes in a few minutes.
- Heart Disease (myocardial infarction, malformationscardiac arrhythmias (cardiac arrhythmias)), accompanied by a violation of the left heart, stagnation of blood in a small circle of blood circulation and increased pressure in the pulmonary vessels.
- Thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery (occlusionlumen of the vessel with a thrombus): a violation of the patency of the branches of the pulmonary artery causes an increase in the pressure in them with the release of the liquid part of the blood plasma into the extracellular space with the development of pulmonary edema.
- Diseases that lead to a decrease in protein levels in the blood: liver disease (cirrhosis), kidney disease (kidney failure).
- Exposure to toxic substances from the environment (eg inhalation of chemical vapors, inhalation and overdose with cocaine, heroin).
- The effects of toxic substances released by bacteria when the infection enters the blood (for example, in severe pneumonia (pneumonia)).
- Trauma of the chest, pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura), pneumothorax (ingress of air into the pleural cavity - a cavity formed by the outer shell of the lungs).
- Radiation damage of the lungs.
- Excessive uncontrolled intravenous fluids.
LookMedBook reminds: the sooner you seek help from a specialist, the more chances to keep health and reduce the risk of complications:
- Collection of complaints and anamnesis of the disease (dyspnea, cough with frothy pink sputum, chest pain, palpitation).
- General examination (examination of the skin, listening to the lungs with a phonendoscope, measuring blood pressure, determining the pulse).
- Radiography of the chest, which allows you to identify signs of pulmonary edema.
- Determination of the gas composition of blood (with the help oflaboratory blood test) and / or saturation of blood with oxygen (pulse oximetry - examination using a special sensor worn on the patient's finger).
- catheterization of the pulmonary artery (method of determining the pressure in the pulmonary artery);
- coagulograms (to determine the coagulation capacity of blood);
- electrocardiography (ECG) - for diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a possible cause of pulmonary edema;
- echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart) - for the diagnosis of heart disease, which was a possible cause of pulmonary edema;
- biochemical blood test - additionalStudies to find deviations in the work of organs, whose diseases could cause the development of pulmonary edema (for example, assessment of the functional state of the liver, kidneys).
- Elimination of oxygen deficiency in the body - oxygen inhalation.
- Elimination of fluid from the lungs is a diuretic.
- Elimination of an excessive burden on the heart and a decrease in pressure in the pulmonary capillaries - for this purpose, funds that dilate blood vessels and narcotic analgesics are used.
- Normalization of cardiac output - cardiotonic drugs.
- At low arterial pressure - means that increase the pressure.
- Treatment of the underlying disease leading to pulmonary edema (eg, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism (clot lumen of the blood clot), liver, kidney disease).
- To prevent the attachment of a secondary infection, the use of antibiotics is possible.
- Accession of secondary infection with the development of pneumonia (pneumonia).
- Acute oxygen deficiency in the body with impaired function of vital organs (brain, heart). In the absence or untimely provision of medical care - a fatal outcome.
Identification and early treatment of diseases that can lead to pulmonary edema (eg, heart disease, liver, kidney disease).
Lung edema can develop in three main mechanisms:
- increased hydrostatic pressure in pulmonarycapillaries (reloading blood vessels with light blood volume): due to high pressure, the permeability of blood vessels is disturbed, the liquid part of the blood plasma leaves the lungs, filling first the intercellular space, and then the alveoli (the final part of the respiratory tract, in which gas exchange with the environment takes place), gas exchange is disrupted in the lungs, an acute deficiency of oxygen in the body develops;
- decreased oncotic blood pressure (lowthe level of protein): as a result, there is a difference between the two oncotic pressures - blood and intercellular fluid, and to compare this difference, the liquid part exits the vessel into the extracellular space with the development of pulmonary edema;
- direct damage to the alveolocapillarymembranes (this membrane is formed by the walls of the alveoli and the capillary adjacent to it, gas exchange is carried out through it) with a violation of its permeability and the escape of fluid from the vessel to the alveoli.