Severe facial swelling of the cause
Edema (puffiness) is an excessive accumulation of fluid inorgans, tissues and cells. Most often, puffiness means swelling of the subcutaneous tissue - the so-called edema of the skin. They can be located on different areas of the body, have different sizes and are accompanied by additional symptoms .
Depending on the cause, there are edemas of the following varieties:
- hydrostatic - develop due to the fact that the outflow of blood from the organs is difficult due to the weakness of the heart muscle. presence of various obstacles to the flow of blood;
- hypoproteinemic, in which due to the fact that the amount of protein in the blood is reduced, the liquid enters the tissues, in the direction of increasing the osmotic pressure;
- membrane-gene, in which there is a violation of the integrity of the wall of blood vessels, as a result of which the fluid freely leaves them;
- neurogenic - as a result of the nervous system inadequately controlling vascular function;
- inflammatory process - swelling is always an integral part of inflammation of an infectious or allergic nature.
There are a huge number of diseases that can cause swelling.
When the swelling is normal?
Small swelling of the feet in the evenings it may well be a normal phenomenon. However, this does not mean that in such a situation it is possible to remain idle. It is best to visit the therapist and undergo a survey, take measures aimed at preventing varicose veins of the lower extremities.
Sometimes swelling on the face in the morning is a consequencea lot of liquids drunk at night. It is simply to limit the amount of water consumed. especially before going to bed. You can also limit the amount of salt in the diet. If swelling still persists - it is worth visiting a therapist or nephrologist.
Virtually all pregnant women are concerned about small edema on the legs during pregnancy. Most often, there is nothing terrible in this. However, it is recommended to visit a doctor of a woman's consultation in order not to miss such a state as gestosis of pregnant women.
Every person is familiar with blisters and smalledema, which occur in the areas of action of allergens. when in contact with nettle. after a mosquito bite, etc. These local swelling most often do not pose any danger, and pass on their own soon after the cessation of contact with the allergen. But sometimes they are huge and require medical intervention. Such cases will be considered below.
To edema can cause any diseaseheart, which are accompanied by heart failure. - a condition characterized by the inability of the heart to function normally, to the full, perform its pumping functions.To pathologies accompanied by swelling, include:
- arterial hypertension;
- increased pressure in the vessels of the lungs in their diseases;
- defects of the heart valves, congenital or due to the transferred diseases (rheumatism, syphilis, etc.);
- angina pectoris - insufficient blood flow to the heart, which is often accompanied by a violation of its normal functioning;
- myocarditis - an inflammatory process in the heart muscle;
- Cardiomyopathy - heart damage caused by metabolic disorders;
- arrhythmias - in violation of the normal rhythm of the heart, its reduction, even if they have sufficient strength, are wrong, and do not provide normal blood flow.
Edema caused by heart disease (oftenthey are called cardiac edema), have some features. The further some part of the body is from the heart, the more difficult it is for the heart muscle to drive blood through it. Therefore, edema often occurs in remote areas. As a rule, the legs swell. In the vessels of the lower limbs, blood stagnates, which the heart can not lift upward due to the action of gravity.
Usually, with heart disease, swelling on the legsarise in the evenings, because during the day the person is predominantly in an upright position - consequently gradually the load on the heart increases.
Cardiac edema on the feet is cold to the touch, the skin above them has a cyanotic shade. Sometimes it can be accompanied by pain in the legs. tingling, numbness. other unpleasant sensations.
By the expression of swelling of the lower extremitiesit is possible to judge the degree of manifestation of heart failure. In mild cases, only the feet fall. In more severe situations, swelling can reach the hips, abdomen and spread higher.
Diagnosis of cardiac edema and detectionThe main disease is usually carried out by therapists and cardiologists. A survey is carried out, which includes the measurement of blood pressure. electrocardiogram. Heart ultrasound, cardiac radiography, computed tomography. general and biochemical blood analysis.
Treatment entirely depends on the maindisease, and is selected individually for each patient. Directly with puffiness, as a rule, struggle with the help of diuretics, but they should be prescribed only by the attending physician.
As is known, in the human body is presenttwo circles of blood circulation: large and small (pulmonary). With some lung diseases, the pressure in the pulmonary vessels increases very much. As a result, it becomes much more difficult for the heart to push blood through a small circle of blood circulation, the whole bloodstream of the body is broken, signs that are similar to the symptoms of heart failure are noted. Among them there are swellings on the legs.The following diseases lead to an increase in pressure in the pulmonary arteries:
- congenital malformations of the respiratory system;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). for example, chronic bronchitis of smokers;
- Infectious diseases, among which sarcoidosis is especially common;
- bronchial asthma. especially its heavy current;
- frequent pneumonia;
- some blood diseases;
- heart valve defects and various heart diseases, which are accompanied by an increase in blood pressure in a small circle of circulation.
With many of the above diseasesthe patient can for a long time not pay attention to the symptoms that arise in him. In addition to edema of the legs with these pathologies, as a rule, worried constant small dyspnea. weakness and fatigue, the patient's skin as a whole can have a grayish tinge. With chronic infections for a long time there may be a slight increase in temperature.
The final diagnosis is established asrule, at a reception with a therapist or pulmonologist. For this, a survey is performed: the doctor prescribes a radiograph and a computed tomography of the chest, a study of the heart. Spirography may be prescribed - a study during which the breath indicators are evaluated.
If suspicion of an oncological process or infection, sputum tests are performed.
Treatment is also determined by the nature of the disease. As a symptomatic agent may be prescribed diuretics, but they are taken only under the supervision of a doctor.
- In renal pathologies, the body often loses a large amount of protein along with urine, so the liquid rushes from the bloodstream into the organs and tissues;
- often also the salt is retained, followed by water. - the organism is supersaturated with liquid.
Edema in kidney disease most oftenlocated on the face. In this case, they occur more often than not in the evening, as cordial, but in the morning. This is understandable: after all, during the night, more often, urination is absent, and all while soaking before sleep, the liquid remains in the body. Skin over swelling has a pale color. The fact is that the kidneys produce substances that are capable of activating the hematopoiesis. With these diseases, this process is broken, the patient develops anemia.
In case of kidney disease, edema on the face canthere are symptoms such as very small or, on the contrary, a very large amount of urine, increased blood pressure, pain in the lumbar region, fever, weakness, fatigue, changes in color and odor of urine.The most common are the following kidney diseases, which can lead to edema:
- pyelonephritis - inflammatory lesion of the renal pelvis;
- glomerulonephritis - an inflammatory lesion of the tissue of the kidney itself;
- amyloidosis of the kidney - a disease due to metabolic disorders;
- kidney tumors;
- kidney trauma;
- atherosclerosis of the renal arteries.
Edemas on the face, caused by kidney diseases, are engaged in such specialists as a therapist, urologist. nephrologist. The examination to establish the causes of renal edema includes:
- X-ray and ultrasound of the kidneys;
- if necessary - computed tomography, MRI. scintigraphy (radioisotope scanning);
- general and biochemical blood tests;
- Urinalysis. general, crops on the microflora, Nechiporenko's test, Zimnitskiy, Addis-Kakovskiy, Amburge and others;
- X-ray contrast studies: intravenous excretory urography, mictorial cystography, etc .;
- if necessary, a kidney biopsy is performed: taking a piece of the organ through a needle for examination under a microscope.
Treatment of renal edema involves treatmentspecific disease. Some patients independently apply various diuretics with these purposes. This is a big mistake. Sometimes these drugs can further exacerbate pathology.
The causes of edema in liver diseases are as follows:
1. The liver is the organ in which a largepart of the body's proteins. And, for the most part, it's the blood proteins. If this process is violated, the fluid ceases to be retained in the bloodstream, and enters the tissues and organs.
2. The liver takes in the portal vein, throughwhich is drained of blood from almost the entire intestine. If this process is violated (and in case of severe diseases of the organ it does), then blood stagnation is noted throughout the lower half of the body.
In this case, there are other symptoms:
- icterus of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be expressed in different degrees;
- edema is localized mainly in the abdomen, often the fluid accumulates directly into the abdominal cavity;
- digestive disorders: constipation. diarrhea. bloating;
- general weakness, fatigue, exhaustion;
- increased body temperature;
- hepatic encephalopathy - impaired memory, attention, thinking, orientation in space and time;
- in especially severe cases, the patient may fall into the so-called hepatic coma.
The diagnosis is established by the therapist,gastroenterologist or hepatologist. There are such studies as ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI, liver scintigraphy, general and biochemical blood tests, blood tests for the presence of viruses-causative agents of the disease.
Then treatment begins. As a rule, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. antiviral. cholagogue, drugs that improve the state of the liver cells. With tumorous diseases, surgical treatment, antitumor drugs, radiation therapy are prescribed. Complex treatment can be prescribed only by a professional doctor.
Subcutaneous edema, which is of allergic origin, is known in medicine as a Quincke edema.
Quincke's edema is a pathological condition,which is a response to contact with the allergen. Most often it is localized on the face, and is characterized by its overall increase or increase in one part (puffiness of the eyelids, lips, cheeks). This arrangement is not accidental, since it is under the skin of the face is the most loose fat tissue.
Sometimes contact with an allergen can swell limbs or other parts of the body.
Edema Quincke differs from renal edema following features:
1. With renal edema, the facial skin is pale, and with Quincke's edema it has a reddish hue;
2. Renal edema occurs mainly in the mornings, and Quincke's edema - with direct contact with allergens.
Also, Quincke's edema can be accompanied by such additional symptoms as itching of the skin, the appearance of urticaria. lacrimation, runny nose. All this is also a manifestation of an allergic reaction.
Quincke's edema usually persists for severalhours, and then disappeared without leaving a trace. If it is not very severe, and is not accompanied by a violation of the general condition of the patient, medical care is not required. It is enough to take a tablet of suprastin or another antiallergic drug. With pronounced Quinck's swelling, you need to call the ambulance team.
With Quinck's edema, specificAllergenprobe, aimed at identifying the allergen. The main treatment is to avoid contact with allergens, the use of anti-allergic drugs.
Some people have such ahereditary form of the disease, like angioedema, associated with inadequate production of certain substances in the body. In this case, the swelling of the face and larynx is provoked not by the action of allergens, but by various injuries. stress. Angioedema is treated by other principles than Quincke's edema. His diagnosis and treatment are practiced by therapists, allergists, other specialists.
Quincke's edema can be located not only under theskin, but also in internal organs. For example, often, especially in childhood, there is a laryngeal edema. Often it occurs at night, when the body produces a small amount of glucocorticoids. - hormones. which suppress inflammatory and allergic reactions. Laryngeal edema is a condition accompanied by suffocation. and may pose a danger to the life of the patient. At its first signs, you must immediately call the ambulance team.
Swelling of the scrotum in men with different diseasesSwelling of the scrotum is a symptom that can occur in a number of male conditions:
- Varicocele - varicose veinsplexus of the testicle. The most common is found on the left. It can for a long time appear only by an increase in the size of the corresponding half of the scrotum. Then pains join, and in the course of time male infertility can develop.
- The hydrocele. or dropsy of the testis. This is a congenital disease characterized by the accumulation of fluid in one half of the scrotum. It is enlarged in size, other symptoms are usually not noted. Over time, the swelling of the testicle can reach very large dimensions. The disease is diagnosed by a surgeon, treated surgically.
- Inflammatory disease of the testis is orchitis. Can be one-sided or two-sided. It is accompanied by reddening and swelling of the corresponding half of the scrotum, pain, and fever. It can be caused by various infections and, as a rule, is an acute condition that requires urgent medical attention. Diagnosis and treatment of orchites are engaged in urologists, children's surgeons.
- Infringement of inguinal and scrotal hernia. This condition occurs in patients who have had a scrotal hernia for a long time. When it is infringed, there is severe pain, swelling and redness of the corresponding half of the scrotum, an increase in body temperature. If timely medical assistance is not provided, the hernial sac may become dead, peritonitis (inflammation of the abdominal cavity) and orchitis (inflammation of the testicle) will develop. Such a patient should be immediately taken to a surgical hospital.
- Torsion of the hydatida Morgagni. Gidatida Morgani is a small formation that does not bear any significant function, it remains as a result of embryonic development, and represents a small outgrowth on the testicle. Gidatida Morgagni can be twisted, and then blood circulation is disturbed in her, she becomes dead. There is a swelling of the scrotum, and the same symptoms as with infringement of the inguinal hernia. Sometimes a doctor can tell during the operation exactly whether there is a torsion of the hydatida Morgani or infringement of the inguinal hernia. A patient with suspicion of this condition should be immediately taken to a hospital and subjected to a surgical procedure.
Swelling of the foot, face or other part of the body is a characteristic symptom that accompanies all kinds of injuries:
1. Injury. In this injury, only soft tissues are affected. Usually a bruise arises due to the fact that a blunt object was struck in any area of the body. In the place of damage there is swelling, pain, subcutaneous hematoma (bruise).
2. Stretch and tear ligament and muscle. They are accompanied by severe pain, in the future movements in the place of injury are severely limited due to pain. There is swelling, bruising.
3. Dislocations. This is a more severe injury, therefore, edema and other symptoms (pain, impaired movement) are more pronounced. There is a deformation of the joint in which the dislocation occurred. In this case, movements are impossible not only because of pain, but also because the articular surfaces have lost touch with each other.
4. Fractures of bones. They are accompanied by severe pain, swelling, subcutaneous hemorrhage, deformity of the limb.
5. Hemarthrosis. The type of injury in which a hemorrhage occurs in the joint cavity. Most often there is hemarthrosis of the knee joint. At the same time, puffiness is noted in the joint region, movements in it are limited.
Far not always possible immediately after the inspectionsay what kind of injury is taking place. Even an experienced doctor can not always be sure if there is a fracture or a common injury in this case. The diagnosis is established after the radiography. Hemarthrosis is diagnosed after performing arthroscopy - examining the joint cavity with the help of an endoscopic instrument inserted into it through a puncture with a miniature video camera.
Treatment is appointed based on the nature of the injury.
Edema in joint diseases - arthritis
Arthritis is a large group of inflammatory diseases in which articular pains are noted. edema in the area of certain joints.The most common types of arthritis are:
- Rheumatoid arthritis. It is one of the characteristic manifestations of rheumatism. In this case, swelling in the legs and arms is most often located in the area of large joints. Simultaneously with puffiness, there are pains, some difficulty of movements. The skin over the joint is hot to the touch, there is redness. Rheumatism is characterized by the short duration of all the symptoms that arise. The joints either on the right or on the left are affected, the swelling and pain quickly pass, but after a while they appear again, now in a different place. Similar edema, if they are caused by rheumatism, most often occur 2 to 4 weeks after the angina.
- Reactive arthritis. Disease, the origin of which is still little is known. With reactive arthritis joints are affected, most often the knee, eyes, genitourinary system. The body temperature rises, the person's health worsens, and swelling and pain appear in the joint area. Develops conjunctivitis. redness of eyeballs, lacrimation, itching in the eyes. In parallel, there may be discharge and other symptoms associated with the genitals.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. A disease that is of an autoimmune nature and is accompanied, in the main, by the lesion of the small joints of the hands and feet. Pain, swelling and stiffness in these joints in the morning are noted.
- Infectious arthritis is caused directlyinfection in the joint cavity. This can happen during an injury, with blood or lymph flow from another chronic inflammatory focus in the body. At the same time, only three symptoms are characteristic: puffiness in the area of the affected joint, pain and an increase in body temperature. With infectious arthritis, almost any joint can be affected. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor must exclude other types of arthritis, for which a survey is carried out.
- Gouty arthritis. It is accompanied by edema of the joints and severe pain. The pain syndrome is expressed so much that it causes the patient real anguish. The pain is greatly enhanced with any touch, including contact with the laundry. A few days later the pain completely passes by itself. Most often, swelling and pain are located in the area of the thumb, such localization is most characteristic.
Diagnosis and treatment of arthritis involved inspecialists, like surgeons, orthopedists. infectiologists, rheumatologists, therapists. Often to establish the diagnosis, such studies as X-ray, joint ultrasound, general and biochemical blood analysis, immunological and microbiological studies, joint puncture are used.
Treatment is determined by a specific type of arthritis. Antibacterial drugs (antibiotics), anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones, etc. can be used.
When introducing pathogenic microorganisms inthe human body always develops an inflammatory process, which is accompanied by symptoms such as puffiness, redness, pain, fever. Swelling of different areas of the body is very common in various pyoinflammatory diseases.Here are the main, most common pathologies, accompanied by edema:
- Erysipelas of the skin. It is a consequence of the introduction of streptococci into the skin. They cause an inflammatory process, characterized by the appearance of red spots with clear boundaries. This place is always swollen, the skin is hotter to the touch. Often the general condition of the patient is disturbed, there is an increase in body temperature, general weakness, malaise.
- Lymphadenitis - inflammation of the subcutaneous lymphaticnode. Very often inflamed submandibular lymph nodes in diseases of the teeth and inflammation of the tonsils (with angina). They can cause swelling on the neck. If the affected lymph node is sufficiently large, then it can even be palpated independently.
- Furuncle. In the people it is known as a boil. It has a characteristic appearance: a painful exaltation on the skin, in the center of which there is a purulent-necrotic stem. Often around the furuncle there is swelling of the skin and subcutaneous fat.
- Sinusitis. Many people know this ENT disease. If the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinus proceeds quite intensively, pronounced edema on the corresponding half of the face can be noted.
- Balanitis and balanoposthitis. These are diseases characterized by swelling and redness in the glans penis. Usually the inflammatory process lasts about 5 days, and then passes.
- Otitis and mastoiditis are inflammatory diseases of the ear and mastoid process of bone formation located behind the auricle. There may be swelling in this area.
- Panaritium - inflammation of the tissues of the fingers. At the same time there is swelling of the affected finger, a pain of pulling character. Sometimes while under the skin you can see a drop of pus.
- Osteomyelitis is a purulent inflammation of the bone. In the place of the lesion, swelling of the extremity is noted, very severe pain, disruption of movement. The patient's general condition also suffers: body temperature rises, weakness appears.
The general principle of treatment of purulent-inflammatory diseases is the appointment of antibiotics and disinfectants. If necessary, surgical intervention is performed.
Before use, consult a specialist.
Sergey September 23, 2015 10:02
Hello, Vera! At my father it is exact such simtomy as well as at your husband. Also, cardiac edema was removed in the hospital, but the puffiness started again after a while. True, he lives in the village and physically for his age is greatly overworked (father 67 years old). Have you understood the causes of puffiness? Thank you!
Vera 04 April, 2014 10:08
Hello! Help me please! My husband has swollen legs, abdomen and recently the penis and scrotum began to swell. He was in the hospital, he was treated permanently, but there's no sense. Puffiness does not go away, but on the contrary intensifies. They can not accurately diagnose and prescribe suitable medicines. Advise. what to do.
You can add your comments and feedback to this article subject to the rules of the discussion.
Back to top of page
The information on our website isreference or popular and is given to a wide range of readers for discussion. The appointment of medicines should be performed only by a qualified specialist, based on the medical history and diagnostic results.