Sinus swelling of the nose
In the bones of the facial skull are coveredmucous membranes of the sinus. In anatomical terminology, they are called paranasal (near-nasal) sinuses, which are capable of self-purification. Normally, about 40-60% of microbes and dust particles penetrating into the nasal cavity with inhaled air are neutralized and removed together with nasal mucus. With a properly functioning self-cleaning mechanism for the respiratory tract, all foreign agents are discharged through natural openings (anastomoses) that connect the airway sinuses to the nasal cavity. However, in the case of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the mucosa due to increased blood and lymph flow swells, partially or completely blocking the communication pathways. This pathological condition is called edema of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.
Edema of the sinuses of the nose - this is a fairly common phenomenon in otolaryngology, arising for various reasons. It can be caused by:
- hypothermia of the body;
- infections of the upper respiratory tract;
- exposure to unfavorable environmental factors;
- mechanical injuries of the nose;
- substances of an allergic nature;
- polyps or adenoids;
- curvature of the nasal septum and other developmental anomalies.
Clinical manifestations of edema of the paranasal sinuses of the nose are divided into inflammatory and functional.
- Inflammatory symptoms include hyperemia,swelling of the affected area, burning, drying of the nasal mucosa, heaviness in the head, nasal congestion, sneezing, lacrimation, headaches of varying intensity and localization, weakness, fever.
- Functional disorders are manifested by a change in the nature of mucus, a violation of nasal breathing and smell, dysphonia (changes in height, strength and timbre of voice).
Edema of sinus outlets upon adherenceBacterial infection often causes the development of purulent inflammation. Breakthrough pus in the surrounding soft tissue can trigger the development of the following complications:
- osteomyelitis of the jawbone;
- neuritis of the trigeminal nerve;
- atrophy of the nasal mucosa;
- Inflammation of the meninges (meningitis);
- abscess of the brain;
- inflammation of the optic nerve.
Diagnosis of edema of the paranasal sinuses includes the following measures: physical examination, instrumental and laboratory examinations.
- With manual examination (palpation) of the affected sine area, the severity of edematous-infiltrative changes is determined.
- Instrumental methods for detecting edema of the nasal mucosa include anterior and posterior rhinoscopy, micrinoscopy and fibroendoscopy.
- Laboratory diagnostics includesstudy of the pathological secretion of the nasal cavity, which involves the use of bacteriological, biochemical, cytological and immunological methods.
In addition, according to medical indications, a patient may be given fluoroscopy or diaphonic scans.
The choice of treatment tactics is based on the causes that triggered the development of the pathological process. Currently, there are 3 areas of pathogenetic therapy.
The use of local vasoconstrictive drugs
This group includes nasal drops and sprays,eliminating the swelling of the mucous and quickly relieve the negative symptoms of nasal congestion. Local decongestants - a means for symptomatic treatment, which should be used strictly according to the instructions.
It is prescribed only after confirmation of the bacterial nature of the disease.
Indication for the use of antihistamines is the high susceptibility of the human body to foreign proteins (allergens).