Causes the nasal mucosa of the cause

One of the most common pathologicalstates in otorhinolaryngology is a swelling of the nose. Its nature is to increase the accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the nasal mucosa. Severe swelling of the nose hinders free breathing, causes stiffness, changes the timbre of the voice and reduces the quality of life.

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The swelling of any organ is one of the most importantsigns of an inflammatory reaction. Inflammation and swelling of the nasal mucosa is a protective reaction of the body to certain pathological changes that have arisen in this area. This condition is always characterized by the inflow of blood to the nasal mucosa and the release of cells by special substances involved in the inflammation process. As a result, the permeability of the capillaries increases, and the vascular fluid enters the space between the cells of the mucous membrane. This causes a feeling of stuffiness. the appearance of a pathological discharge (mucus, pus, sometimes blood) and other unpleasant symptoms.

What are the reasons for swelling of the nose?

The main reasons that can lead to the swelling of the mucous nasal cavity can be divided into 3 large groups:

  • infectious (bacterial, viral);
  • allergic (when exposed to inhalation, medicinal, food and other allergens);
  • traumatic (consequences of injuries, surgical interventions in the nose area).

These reasons explain the formation of swollen nose in a child and adult in 90% of cases. The remaining 10% can arise from the action of more rare factors:

  • curvature of the nasal septum;
  • congenital narrowing of the nasal passages;
  • neoplasms in the nasal cavity (benign and malignant);
  • the use of alcoholic beverages;
  • occurrence of cerebral hernias.

Depending on the cause, the symptoms of the swelling of the nose may vary, and this helps to presume the correct diagnosis sometimes even without a prior visit to the doctor.

Edema of the nose in a runny nose

Edema of the nasal mucosa in such cases is one of the symptoms of a viral disease (acute respiratory disease, influenza) and is accompanied by the formation of mucous secretions.

In rhinitis of viral genesis from the nasal cavitya mucous fluid of almost transparent color is released. This condition, also called catarrhal inflammation, indicates that the cells of the mucosa are affected by one of the viruses that "likes" such a localization (rhinovirus, adenovirus, etc.). Often this condition can be accompanied by sore throat, fever, fatigue.

Removing the swelling of the nasal mucosa with a viral infection can be done in two ways:

  1. etiologically - the destruction of the virus by drugs;
  2. symptomatically - with the help of drugs, the action of which is directed directly at reducing edema (vasoconstrictor drugs).

Most readers the most optimal optionmay seem the first: it is better to eliminate the cause of the pathology than blindly act on the symptoms. However, despite the prevalence of acute respiratory viral infections, a drug that can effectively destroy them, still does not exist. On the pharmaceutical market there is a group of drugs called "antiviral", but most of them are immunomodulating drugs that can only improve the body's resistance. The use of such drugs is justified as a prophylaxis before the development of symptoms of the disease or in the first hours of the disease. An organism without pronounced immunodeficiencies is able to cope with such a viral infection on its own for several days, and for the relief of well-being it is possible to use symptomatic remedies.

To remove the swelling of the nasal mucosa arising frombackground of a viral infection, you can use drops with vasoconstrictive effect. In pharmacies there are a lot of them, ranging from the simplest and cheapest (Naftizin for 15 rubles) and ending with more expensive modern drugs (for example, Rinofluimucil for 250 rubles). The mechanism of action of sprays and drops from the edema of the nose is to narrow the lumen of the capillaries of the mucosa, and reduce the penetration of fluid into the intercellular spaces. Their advantages are that they act after a few minutes after application, instantly facilitating breathing.

Regardless of the cost of vasoconstrictive drugs, they can not be taken longer than 5-7 days. They cause habituation of the nasal mucosa to the application and disrupt its normal functioning.

After the human body copes with thevirus, the runny nose will pass by itself. Most often it takes about one week. The use of vasoconstrictors is desirable to alternate with washing the nasal cavity with saline solutions (physiological, Aquolar, Aquamaris and others).

Nasal edema with bacterial infection

Viral infections have immunosuppressiveaction, therefore on their background the bacterial flora which becomes the reason of a purulent rhinitis, a genyantritis often joins. tonsillitis and a number of other diseases. To prevent the development of a secondary bacterial infection during the viral process, it is necessary to try to comply with bed rest.

On the attachment of bacterial floraindicates a discoloration of the color of the discharge from the nasal passages. From transparent it becomes yellowish, gradually turning into green. This is a sure sign that it is necessary to begin treatment with antibacterial drugs.

In addition to the color of the discharge, the swelling of the nose with bacterial infection differs from the viral more vivid symptomatology, which is characterized by:

  • the expressed zalozhennostju;
  • increasing viscosity, as a result of which the marking of the detachable is difficult;
  • the appearance of an unpleasant odor.

The approach to treatment in this case is radically differentfrom the previous one. With bacterial infection, one symptomatic application of vasoconstrictive drugs can not cope. It is necessary to directly affect the bacterium that caused the development of the pathological condition. To achieve the best therapeutic effect and treatment of bacterial edema of the nose, it is better to use the following algorithm of actions:

  1. To drip into the nasal passages of any vasoconstrictor.
  2. Clean them by blowing them out.
  3. Treat the mucosa with a medicinal product that has an antibacterial effect.

For such purposes, you can useremedies like Miramistin. Isophra. Bioparox. Polidex. They have good bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties, will help quickly cope with a protracted runny nose purulent character and prevent the development of sinusitis. Use of these drugs should be strictly according to the instructions and do not exceed the recommended period of treatment, since the irrational use of antibiotics can lead to negative consequences in the form of development of bacterial resistance.

If the swelling of the nasal mucosa occurs without visiblecauses, is not accompanied by a rise in temperature, a sore throat and other signs of an infectious disease, it is possible to suspect the development of an allergic reaction. In favor of this is evidence of frequent sneezing, itchy skin, burning of mucous membranes. lacrimation. The cause is most often inhalation allergens, which get on the nasal mucosa, cause inflammatory reaction and the development of edema. The disease, which is seasonal in nature and has a clear connection with the flowering of plants, is called pollinosis or seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, in which the edema of not only the nose but also the eye develops.

In such cases, for the treatment of edema of the nasal mucosaIt is necessary to use drops or sprays containing glucocorticosteroids or antihistamines. Drugs with a hormonal composition frighten many people, but this fear is completely unjustified. Topical glucocorticosteroids are recommended for the treatment of allergic rhinitis by leading European allergists and are included in all modern treatment regimens. They effectively remove the swelling of the nasal mucosa, and their regular use for preventive purposes can prevent the aggravation of allergic rhinitis. Contrary to fears, local glucocorticosteroids do not cause strong addiction, and do not have systemic effects on the body. The most popular representatives of this group are Avamis. Fliksonase. Nazonex.

Antihistamines are preparations of the secondline for the elimination of edema of the nasal mucosa and the removal of other symptoms of allergy. They are in the form of a spray (Allergoodil) and tablets. Antihistamines require regular use, especially during the period of exacerbation, so it is better to give preference to the means of the last generation (Zirtek, Claritin). Such drugs as Tavegil and Suprastin cause severe drowsiness and are not suitable for daytime use in people leading an active lifestyle.

Use vasoconstrictive drugs foreliminate allergic edema of the nose should not be. Their use is possible only in exceptional cases, when there is no possibility to remove the swelling of the nose and stuffiness by other means.

This variant of the edema refers to the forms thatare not accompanied by a runny nose. Injuries of the nose area, like any other, are characterized by pain and nosebleeds. These cases require immediate treatment to a surgeon or trauma doctor, because they can have unpleasant and even life-threatening consequences. In case of severe trauma, it is possible to damage the latticed bone, which accompanies the discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nasal passages (cerebrospinal fluid). This is an extremely threatening sign, which indicates very serious damage. How to remove the swelling of the nose, the cause of which was trauma? As a first aid, you can use ice, which temporarily reduces pain, slows down the development of the inflammatory reaction and partially reduces swelling.

Edema is a normal reaction of the body tosurgical interventions in the nasal area. These can be operations aimed at eliminating pathological disorders (septoplasty, polyp removal), or shape correction. Edema of the nose after rhinoplasty exists for one and a half, and sometimes two weeks. The tip of the nose and the region of the bridge of the nose swell most strongly. All drugs that are directed to fight it, must be prescribed by the operating surgeon. It is necessary to monitor the rate of edema reduction. If swelling only increases with time, you should immediately contact a specialist. Most likely, this indicates the onset of an infectious process that may complicate the operation. Also in the postoperative period, it is better to limit yourself to excessively salty foods, which helps to delay fluid.

At the tip of the nose swelling lasts longer, althoughsometimes it is unnoticeable to anyone but the patient himself. Useful in such cases may be anti-inflammatory compresses from chamomile broth. To do this, fold the gauze in several layers, moisten in a cool solution, squeeze a little and apply to the swelling for 10-15 minutes.

Other causes of edema of the nose

If the swelling of the nose is permanent and not related toallergies, then you need to see a doctor to find out the cause. This may be due to the presence of benign (polyps) or even malignant neoplasms, hormonal disorders, congenital defects (curvature of the nasal septum). Nasal edema can occur during pregnancy, but it should always disappear on its own after the birth.

Long-term edema of the nasal mucosa withoutobvious causes and the tendency to disappear requires careful diagnosis, which includes the collection of anamnesis, anterior rhinoscopy, sometimes endoscopic examinations and tomography of the paranasal sinuses.

How to remove the swelling of the nose in a child?

Treatment of swollen nasal mucosa in a child respondsall the principles listed above. The only difference is that you need to carefully study the instructions of the drug used and make sure its safety for a child of a specific age.

Also, the baby's skin is more sensitive tomechanical influence and use of medications, so the inflammation of the nasal mucosa in a child is often accompanied by edema under the nose, which is characterized by itching and burning. For the removal of such unpleasant symptoms it is recommended to use anti-inflammatory creams on a plant basis (Dr. Theiss, La Cree). The first occurrence of edema in the nose in a child is an indication for contacting a pediatrician.

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