Pain and swelling in the ankle
Ankle joint along with the knee and withhip is one of the largest joints. And one of the manifestations of the pathology of this joint is edema. But before discussing what should be the treatment of the swelling of the ankle, you should understand a little about the causes of this pathology.
Ankle joint is a rather complex anatomical entity. In its formation, 3 bones take part - a large, small tibia, and the talus bone of the foot.
The shape of the ankle joint isblock-shaped. Like all joints of the lower extremities, the ankle experiences large static and dynamic loads of body weight when walking and maintaining the body in a vertical position. Accordingly, the ankle joint is more prone to various pathological changes than many others. And the symptoms of these changes along with swelling are pain, redness of the skin, difficulty walking until completely immobilized.
The most frequent causes of swelling of the ankleThe joints are injuries. Distinguish the following types of ankle injury: bruises, wounds, fractures of bones (ankles), sprains. Traumatic edema is caused by a violation of microcirculation of the blood in soft tissues, muscle swelling, the outflow of blood into soft tissues and into the joint cavity. In addition, as a result of traumatic injuries and complex reflex mechanisms, the failure of the valve arises. This leads to a violation of outflow of blood through the veins of the lower extremities, stagnation of blood and edema.
After an injury, the degeneration of the jointcartilage in ankle - so called. posttraumatic arthrosis. Osteoarthritis of the ankle may be a consequence of such a common pathology as lumbar osteochondrosis. Osteoarthritis causes joint instability, weakness of the ligamentous apparatus, which can lead to additional traumas (dislocations and subluxations of the foot) or to inflammation - arthritis.
In addition to injuries, arthritis can be a consequence ofrheumatism, gout, and many other metabolic disorders and infectious diseases. Arthritis of the ankle is accompanied by edema of the periarticular tissues due to impaired capillary permeability and accumulation of intraarticular fluid, sometimes with an admixture of blood and pus.
Thus, the swelling of the ankle is due to several factors, among which:
- Disturbance of microcirculation with the release of plasma of blood into soft tissues
- Decrease in the tone of veins, failure of the valves
- Mechanical damage of muscles, articular tissues with bone fragments during injuries
- Damage to muscles
- Accumulation of exudate - tissue serous fluid, sometimes with an admixture of blood and pus in the capsule of the joint.
Each pathology of the ankle can beis caused by several, and sometimes by all the above pathological mechanisms. And in most cases, not only the ankle can swell, but also the rest, smaller foot joints.
Accordingly, the treatment of swelling of the joints of the foot provides:
- Improvement of blood microcirculation
- Raising the tone of the veins
- Removal of exudate
- Reduced permeability of the vascular wall
- In case of joint damage, wound toilet, comparison (reposition) of bone fragments.
Strictly speaking, it is from the last in the listmeasures need to begin treatment for traumatic edema of the foot joints. Otherwise, no medicine will not take the swelling. With closed fractures, the subluxation of the foot is eliminated, the bone fragments are compared and fixed with a plaster bandage. If necessary, resort to more reliable methods of fixing metal plates, the Ilizarov apparatus.
Pumped into the joint cavity, pus, bloodnecessarily delete. Then antibiotics are injected into the joint cavity. Along with antibiotics (but not simultaneously), steroid hormones are also injected into the articular cavity - Kenalog, Diprospan. Very well traumatic and inflammatory swelling of the ankle is removed by medicines based on the fruits of horse chestnut. The drug from this group, L-lysine escinate, is injected intravenously. Another medicine, Aescin gel, is applied to the skin in the projection of the joint. As a result, swelling goes away literally in a day.
To improve microcirculation of blood in capillariesmuscles, soft tissues, intravenously drip Trental, Pentoxifylline, Curantil. Almost always with trauma, inflammation of the ankle suffers venous outflow of blood. The properties of the venous wall change, the valves of the veins become weaker. Very well strengthens the veins Diosmin and its analogues - Fleobody, Vasoket, Detraleks. All these drugs are presented in the form of tablets. However, in order to remove swelling, you need a long course of taking these funds.
Inflammatory swelling of the ankle is removed by the externalthe use of anti-inflammatory drugs, including Diklak gel, Naise gel, Ibuprofen ointment. All these funds are used only for the doctor's prescription. And an experienced specialist can not always determine why the ankle joint swells in this particular case. Therefore, complex diagnostics is needed. To this end, resort to X-ray, ultrasound, computer tomography of the ankle. On the efficiency and speed of blood flow through the vessels of the ankle, such a specific method as rheovasography will tell.
Traditional medicine effectively complements the conventional medical methods of treating edema of the foot and shin.
The simplest method is a cold in the form of a bubble with ice at the site of the injury. Cold is effective only in the first day or two, and then it should go to warming procedures.
To do this, you can heat the sand on a dry frying pan, then place it in a bag and apply it to the foot and ankle.
Excellent swelling of the half-alcohol compresses. Many have heard about them, but everyone knows what it is. The concentrated alcohol is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1 (hence the name). Next, a clean cloth is wetted in the resulting solution and applied to the desired area. The napkin on top is covered with polyethylene, and all this is wrapped with a woolen cloth.
Spirotofuratsilinovye compresses - a modificationsemi-alcoholic. Instead of water, a pharmacological solution of furacilin is used here. Already in the first minutes the patient feels pleasant warmth. Compresses should be applied a night, and keep them until the morning.
All these tools can (and should) be combined withphysiotherapeutic treatment. Excellent relieve swelling of soft tissue magnet, phonophoresis with hydrocortisone, electrophoresis with calcium. However, one should not forget that warming and thermal procedures are contraindicated in the presence of wounds, abrasions, blood clots and pus.