Hypothyroidism and facial edema treatment
Hypothyroidism is a disease caused by insufficient release of hormones by the thyroid gland.
There are primary, secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism.
Primary hypothyroidism develops in the lesion of the thyroid gland and is accompanied by an increase in the level of thyrotropic hormone - TSH.
Secondary hypothyroidism occurs when lesions occura special part of the brain - the hypothalamic-pituitary system - with insufficient isolation of thyroid-stimulating hormone and subsequent decrease in thyroid function.
Tertiary hypothyroidism develops when the hypothalamus is affected.
The predominant age of development of hypothyroidism is over 40 years. The predominant sex is female.
The causes of the disease depend on its shape.
- attack with his own immune system;
- treatment of diffuse toxic goiter;
- deficiency of iodine (in regions with a pronounced deficit);
- congenital disorders (most often - maldevelopment of the gland).
Secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism can be caused by any of the conditions leading to a deficiency of the pituitary or hypothalamus function (trauma, tumor, radiation, surgery, etc.).
The main signs of hypothyroidism are:
- slowing speech and thinking
- constant feeling of cold due to slowing metabolism
- puffiness of face and swelling of extremities caused by accumulation of mucous material in tissues
- change in voice and hearing impairment due to edema of the larynx, tongue and middle ear in severe cases
- an increase in body weight, which reflects a decrease in metabolic rate, but a significant increase does not occur, since appetite is reduced
- tendency to lower blood pressure
- nausea, flatulence. constipation
- loss of hair, their dryness and fragility, sometimes icterus of skin
- menstrual cycle disorders in women.
Symptoms of latent hypothyroidism have many "masks".
Deficiency of thyroid hormones, mainly in women, leads to a depressed mood, inexplicable anguish and even to severe depression.
With hypothyroidism, the cognitive function decreases, memory and attention worsen, intellect decreases (either explicitly or secretly).
Insomnia can develop. intermittent sleep, difficulty falling asleep and other sleep disorders, including increased drowsiness.
As the prescription of unrecognized and untreated hypothyroidism increases, the syndrome of intracranial hypertension develops. There are frequent, and then constant headaches.
Hidden hypothyroidism often occurs under the mask of cervical or thoracic osteochondrosis.
Symptoms of such hypothyroidism are as follows:
- are concerned with the sensation of tingling, burning, "goosebumps,
- muscular pain in the upper limbs,
- weakness in the hands.
The most common are cardiac "masks" of hypothyroidism: an increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood, an increase in blood pressure.
In women, hidden hypothyroidism can be manifested by violations of menstrual function, mastopathy.
Edema can also be a "mask" of hidden hypothyroidism. Edema of the eyelids or common swelling of an unknown origin is often the only or leading sign of this disease.
A significant role in the development of hypothyroidism is played by secondary immunodeficiency, which can develop even with a slight decrease in thyroid function.
A sign of latent hypothyroidism may be anemia, because thyroid hormones stimulate blood formation.
Diagnosis of hypothyroidism is carried out by an endocrinologist on the basis of laboratory and instrumental studies:
- reduced concentrations of total T4 in blood serum;
- reduced absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland;
- elevated serum TSH concentration is an early and most sensitive symptom of primary hypothyroidism;
- for secondary hypothyroidism, conversely, a decrease in the concentration of TSH is characteristic.
Proper nutrition is important in the treatment of the disease.
The diet for hypothyroidism is built on the way of increasing the protein content and limiting fats and carbohydrates (mostly easily digestible: honey, jam, sugar, flour products).
Attention! More on the diet for hypothyroidism - in our special article. prohibited and permitted products, the reasons why a diet should be observed.
The drug of choice in the treatment of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine sodium.
Treatment is carried out to normalize the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
For adults, the average dose of levothyroxine sodium (L-thyroxine) is 1.6 μg / kg of body weight per day. In different patients, the daily requirement ranges from 25 to 200 μg / day.
Selection of the dose should be carried out gradually, starting with the minimum. The initial dose does not exceed 25-50 μg / day.
The increase is not earlier than 4-6weeks, when the body adapts to the initial dose of the drug. To assess the adequacy of ongoing substitution therapy, periodic monitoring of the level of TSH in the blood is necessary.
The body's need for hormones in the thyroid gland in the summer often decreases, which must also be taken into account.
Experience shows that in men the average need for L-thyroxine is slightly higher than for women.
It is important to teach patients with hypothyroidism self-control: follow the state of health, pulse, arterial pressure, body weight, tolerability of thyroxine, keep a diary of observations. This will help to avoid complications of hypothyroidism and the side effect of the hormones used.
At an early start of treatment, the prognosis is favorable.