Swelling of the throat and tonsils
Tonsils, which most people callglands, are accumulations of lymphoid cells in the oropharynx. The main task of these formations is to protect a person from microorganisms penetrating the body by airborne droplets. There are several tonsils: palatine, pharyngeal, lingual and tubal. When the patient complains that his tonsils are hurting, then speech is most often about the palatine tonsils.
When the tonsils start to hurt?
There are many reasons why a patientcan feel pain in the tonsils. Pain sensations can vary in a wide range: from mild discomfort on one side of the pharynx, to intense pain that does not open the mouth. Let us consider in more detail the conditions and their symptoms, which most often cause unpleasant sensations in the throat.
Acute infectious pathology that affectstonsils and is characterized by a severe condition of the patient. The cause of angina in most cases are bacteria, viruses, fungi or viral-bacterial associations.
Acute tonsillitis can be observed with blood diseases and a number of infectious diseases (scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, etc.).
To the development of pathology predisposes the decrease in immunity, the presence of chronic foci of infection, general and local hypothermia, psycho-emotional overload and other moments.
- a sharp increase in temperature;
- sore throat, worse when swallowing;
- symptoms of general intoxication: headache, weakness, fever, chills, aches in bones and muscles;
- increased regional lymph nodes;
- tonsils are sore, swollen and covered with white deposits or characteristic vesicles (with viral sore throat).
Symptoms of the disease may vary dependingfrom the type of pathogen (virus, bacteria or fungi), the state of immunity of the patient and the reactivity of the organism. An invariable sign remains bilateral pain in the tonsils or soreness on only one side (angina of Simanovsky-Vincent), which extends to the neck, ears and temples.
This pathology is one of the complications of angina, when in the recovery period the patient suddenly raises a fever and begins to ache on the one hand.
This occurs if the infection penetrates into the paratonsillar tissue and causes the formation of an abscess (a cavity filled with pus).
- pain usually occurs a few days after sore throat;
- in the majority of cases, painful feelings are disturbed on the one hand, rarely defeat is bilateral;
- a sharp increase in temperature;
- symptoms of severe intoxication: headaches, chills, sweating, etc .;
- spasm of chewing musculature (the patient can not open his mouth);
- nausea, bad breath.
The patient's condition is severe because of severe pain in the throat, it is impossible to swallow and eat. If the abscess spontaneously opens, the patient's condition immediately improves and the temperature drops.
There is often no spontaneous dissection of the abscess and the process begins to spread further, causing severe complications.
Disease of glands, in which they become a hotbed of chronic infection and cease to perform their protective function.
The cause of the disease is infection and various contributing factors: improper treatment of angina, decreased immunity, congenital features of the structure of the glands and others.
Purulent congestion on the right side of chronic tonsillitis
The disease occurs with periods of exacerbations andremissions. During the exacerbation, the clinical picture represents typical symptoms of angina. During the remission period, the symptoms are weaker, but the patient may be uncomfortable with tonsils and throat discomfort.
- discomfort in the throat: perspiration, dryness and burning;
- symptoms of chronic intoxication: lethargy, drowsiness, fatigue, irritability, etc .;
- episodes of temperature increase;
- sometimes pain in the heart and joints.
Prolonged chronic tonsillitis can provoke the development of diseases of other organs and systems (glomerulonephritis, endocarditis, etc.).
Any allergen that penetrates the mucous membrane of the oropharynx of a person sensitive to it can cause the development of an allergic reaction.
The most common allergy in the pharynx and tonsils develops when the mouth inhales chemical allergens, on dental material or when using local sprays, lozenges, or throat rinses.
- pain and swelling of the throat and tonsils;
- difficulty in breathing;
- Perspiration, dryness in the throat;
- the temperature is normal or slightly increased.
Important! The most dangerous complication of this condition is the laryngeal edema, which can lead to death from suffocation. Therefore, all allergic reactions in the throat require immediate medical attention.
In the early stages of pain in the tonsils are rare. If the process is started, then there can be expressed painful sensations, which are not removed by usual medication.
Damage to glands by foreign objects (fishor chicken bone, toothpick, etc.) causes painful sensations. The pain occurs on one side of the tonsils and, with a shallow lesion, passes independently in a few days.
Violation of the optimum humidity and temperature
Dry air in the room leads to drying of the mucous membrane of the oropharynx and glands, which is manifested by burning, perspiration and unpleasant sensations in the throat.
Similar problems may occur in patients with obstructed or impaired nasal breathing due to a cold or anomalies in the structure of the nasal cavity (curved septum, etc.).
Diseases and conditions accompanied by a decrease in immunity
Patients with HIV infection, blood diseases,taking cytotoxic agents are susceptible to fungal and viral infection of the oropharynx and tonsils. This group of patients may have chronic sore throat associated with a persistent secondary infection.
Therapeutic tactics and approaches to therapy
What to do and how to properly treat the pain in the throat and tonsils, the doctor decides on the basis of the diagnosis.
Depending on the cause that caused the problem with the amygdala, the methods of treatment are radically different:
- If the pain caused angina, then treat the diseasebegin antibiotics, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and other means (sprays, lozenges, rinses). When the disease is recommended, bed rest, a plentiful drink and a diet.
- With paratonsillar abscess, treat the diseaseconservatively practically useless. Choose a surgical opening of the abscess followed by antibacterial therapy. In the future, the removal of tonsils is recommended.
- Chronic tonsillitis requires a longconservative therapy (washing of tonsils, physiotherapy, strengthening of immunity, etc.). To treat the disease with antibiotics does not make sense, because the infection hides deep in the lacunae and has a certain resistance to antibacterial drugs.
- If the pain in the gland is caused by an allergy, first of all you need to establish and exclude contact with the allergen. Prescribe antihistamines (Loratadin, Zodak) drugs.
- With neoplasms, the doctor chooses the treatment tactics taking into account the specific features of the clinical process and the nature of the tumor.
- With light scratches on tonsils and normalimmunity, you can do nothing, the pain will pass in a few days. You can rinse with solutions of antiseptics for disinfection of the wound surface.
- If the cause of the pain is over-dried mucousbecause of the disturbed microclimate, you should try to treat the disease with leaching and irrigation of the nose with saline solutions, moistening the air and frequent airing.
- If there is a persistent obstruction of nasal breathing (chronic rhinitis, curvature of the septum of the nose), then the necessary surgical intervention should be performed.
What can not be done in any case, thisindependently determine the cause and treat the disease according to their own feelings or the advice of friends. A competent medical diagnosis and adequate therapy will help to eliminate pain in the tonsils and avoid the development of complications.
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