Signs of pulmonary edema in a dog

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Symptoms of diseases in dogs

Kuzmin A.A. "Diseases of Dogs: A Handbook for a Practical Doctor"

COUGH
Definition. Cough - sharp reflex exhalations aimed at removing mucus and foreign bodies from the respiratory tract. There is a moist and dry, superficial and deep, sharp and chronic cough. Sometimes cough from a protective reaction turns into a pathological one.
Causes. Diseases of the respiratory tract: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, foreign body, bronchiectasis, helminths, swelling, compression of the trachea and bronchi.
Pulmonary diseases: pneumonia, abscess, swelling, edema, pulmonary hypertension, pleurisy. Diseases of the heart: failure of the left ventricle.
Most often, cough is noted with tracheobronchitis and pneumonia.
Dog owners can take cough and expectorant movements for vomiting.
Symptomatic therapy. Antitussives (libexin, codeine), bronchospasmolytic (ephedrine, euphyllin), mucolytic agents (mucaltin, terpinhydrate, bromhexine) are used. In case of allergic genesis, antihistamines (diprasine, suprastin, dimedrol) and glucocorticoids (prednisolone, triamcinolone).

BLEEDING OF THE BOW
Definition. Bleeding nasal - the outflow of scarlet non-foaming blood from the nostrils.
Causes: trauma, surgical intervention, hypertension, hemorrhagic diathesis, bacterial infection, viral infection, parasites, lowering of atmospheric pressure.
Most often it is noted with injuries and infectious diseases.
Symptomatic therapy. Bury in the nose 0.1% solution of adrenaline, 1% r mezatona, 0.1% rn naftizina or galazolina, 3% rr hydrogen peroxide. Intramuscularly administered vikasol, calcium gluconate, intravenous - calcium chloride. In the absence of effect - locally 1% rr of silver nitrate, hemostatic sponge

BLOOD SHELL
Definition. Hemoptysis - expectoration with sputum scarlet blood in the form of veins or foam. Blood can also be released from the mouth by a stream.
Causes: thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, lung infarction, pneumonia, lung abscess, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tumor, parasites, trauma, decreased blood coagulation, mitral stenosis, acute left ventricular failure.
The most common causes are: pneumonia, lung abscess, bronchiectasis.
Symptomatic therapy. Intravenous - calcium chloride.
Intramuscularly - vikasol, calcium gluconate, analgin, diprazine. With cardiac insufficiency (tachycardia) cardiotonic agents (cardiac glycosides, cordyamine, camphor), furosemide are used.

ENHANCED BREATHING (BELIEF)
Definition. Shortness of breath (dyspnoea) - increased, shortness of breath. Distinguish inspiratory dyspnoea (difficulty breathing), expiratory (difficulty breathing out), mixed. In addition, distinguish tachypnea (polypnoea) - faster rate of respiration, hyperpnoea - faster rate and increase in the depth of respiratory movements.
Causes.The immediate causes of dyspnea are: a decreased concentration of oxygen in the blood, elevated temperature, organic and functional diseases of the central nervous system, pain, changes in the sensitivity of the respiratory musculature receptors, metabolic disturbances.
Dyspnoea may occur with the followingdiseases: rhinitis, laryngitis, laryngeal edema, foreign body in the trachea or bronchi, compression of the trachea and bronchi, bronchitis obstructive, bronchitis allergic (bronchial asthma), parasitic bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary emphysema, exudative pleurisy, pneumothorax , pulmonary fibrosis, atelectasis, pericarditis, diaphragmatic hernia, ascites, trauma, swelling, anemia, methemoglobinemia, encephalitis, poisoning, heart failure.
In dogs, dyspnea usually occurs when the neck is squeezed by a collar, increased body temperature, pneumonia, encephalitis and hypocalcemia tetany.
Symptomatic therapy. Apply caffeine, sulphocamphocaine, camphor, euphyllin, glucocorticoids. With pneumonia, oxygen therapy is indicated. With hypocalcemia - calcium preparations and sedatives. With heart failure - cardiac glycosides. With pulmonary edema, furosemide.

PANCAKING AND NAZMORK
Definition. Sneezing is a sharp reflex exhalation through the nose, aimed at removing mucus and foreign particles from the nasal cavities. Coryza - the discharge from the nostrils of serous, mucopurulent or muco-hemorrhagic exudate. Happens, as a rule, two-sided.
Causes. Sneezing occurs with irritation of the nasal mucosa by external factors (microorganisms, viruses, irritants, foreign particles) and internal (immune complexes).
The main causes of the common cold are: viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, foreign body, swelling, trauma, pneumonia.
Most common colds are with viral infections (plague carnivorous, adenovirus).
Sometimes through the nostrils liquid food is thrown out. This pathology occurs when the hard palate is not enlarged, cryopharyngeal achalasia (in puppies), cardiac achalasia, esophageal diverticulum.
Symptomatic therapy. With serous exudate treatment is not required. In the mucopurulent nature of the exudate, drops of dexamethasone with neomycin, "Sophradex", 2% solution of boric acid, 0.1% of ethanol solution, 0.5% of zinc sulfate, 2% of collagol or protargol; carefully lubricate the inside of the nasal mucosa with a 5% liniment of synthomycin, 1% erythromycin, polymyxin ointment.

GLOTION DISORDER (DISFAGY)
Definition. Dysphagia is a disorder of swallowing due to morphological, mechanical or functional disorders in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, brain, cranial nerves.
Causes:non-solidification of the hard palate, foreign body in the oral cavity or pharynx, cryopharyngeal achalasia, obstruction of the esophagus due to foreign body entry, constriction, tumor; diverticulum of the esophagus, rupture of the esophagus, achalasia of the cardia, esophageal reflux, myasthenia gravis, rabies.
Most often, dysphagia is due to foreign body entry.
Symptomatic therapy. Before eliminating the cause of the swallowing disorder, parenteral nutrition is prescribed: intravenously or subcutaneously, 5% of glucose in a daily dose of up to 40 ml / kg (preferably 1 unit of insulin per 100 ml of solution), hydrolysine solution; intravenous - alvezinum, lipofundin.

CONSTIPATION
Definition. Constipation (constipation, obstipation) - a prolonged delay in the emptying of the large intestine.
Causes. The immediate causes of constipation are: atony of the intestine, foreign body in the intestine, narrowing of the lumen of the intestine and anus, reflex delay of defecation. Constipation occurs with the following conditions and diseases: trauma and swelling of the spinal cord, intussusception, poisoning with heavy metals, holinoblokatorami, adrenomimetics, anesthetics; foreign body in the intestines, coprolites, tumors of the intestine and prostate, proctitis, paranal sinusitis, gluing the wool around the anus with calves.
Most often, constipation is due to eating of a large number of bones by dogs, especially birds, and also because of the pain of defecation when the secretion of the paranal glands is stale and the paranal sinusitis.
Symptomatic therapy. First of all, if there are no contraindications, the dog is given an enema. In the absence of effect, laxatives are used: vegetable (bark buckthorn), saline (sodium and magnesium sulfate), oil (castor oil, sunflower, olive, vaseline), synthetic (purgene, bisacodyl). If constipation is caused by coprolitis, located in the rectum, the oil is injected into the rectum, and coprolite is removed through the anus. To remove spasm of smooth muscles apply no-shpu, baralgin, as well as a paranephric neocaine blockade. When the lumen of the excretory ducts of the paranal glands is blocked, their contents are squeezed out by hand. After defecation to the dog 3 times a day, rectal suppositories "Anestezol", "Anuzol", "Proctosedil", with glycerin are injected into the rectum.

HUNTING
Definition. Hiccups are an involuntary, often repeated inspiration associated with contraction of the diaphragm.
Causes: overeating, dry food, helminthic invasion, pancreatitis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system damage.
Most often, hiccups occur in puppies during overeating and helminthic invasion.
Symptomatic therapy, as a rule, is not required.
You can stop the attack of hiccups with metoclopramide (cerucal), as well as tranquilizers (tazepam, seduxen) and neuroleptics (aminazine, etaperazine).

BLOOD IN KALE
Definition. Blood in the feces is an admixture in the feces of the blood. Blood can be released from the anus, regardless of defecation. The further the source of bleeding from the rectum and closer to the stomach, the darker the staining of the stool. With diarrhea, stools are colored red regardless of the bleeding site.
Causes: nonspecific gastritis, enteritis, colitis, proctitis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, infectious diseases (parvovirus enteritis, adenovirus infections, leptospirosis), helminthiases, cystosisporosis, allergies, poisonings, gastrointestinal tract tumors, K- and C-avitaminosis, hemorrhagic diathesis , hemorrhoids, coprolites.
The most frequent causes of the appearance of blood in the feces are parvoviral enteritis and an allergic reaction.
Symptomatic therapy. Intravenous calcium chloride is introduced, intramuscularly - calcium gluconate, vikasol, vitamin C, mezaton (can be rectally). Inside appoint astringents. In case of allergic genesis, antihistamines (dimedrol, diprazine), glucocorticoids (intramuscular prednisolone or dexamethasone), adrenomimetics (epinephrine, ephedrine, mezaton) are prescribed.

INCREASED APPETITUDE
Definition. Increased appetite (bulimia) - the desire to eat large amounts of food. Not always accompanied by obesity.
Causes: pre-fasting, diabetes mellitus, condition after epileptic seizure, encephalitis, helminthiases.
Symptomatic therapy is not developed.

CONCURRENCE OF UNDECLARABLE SUBJECTS
Definition. Eating inedible objects (allotriophagy) - the desire to lick or swallow inedible objects.
It can be physiological in puppies, especially during the change of teeth, and sometimes in adult dogs.
Causes: insufficiency of microelements, especially calcium and phosphorus; hypo- and avitaminosis, rickets, gastritis, enteritis, liver disease, onset of parvoviral enteritis and adenovirus infections, helminthiases, rabies.
Most often occurs with rickets and helminthic invasion.
Symptomatic therapy: in the absence of contraindications, tranquilizers and neuroleptics are sometimes used.

PONOS IS ACUTE
Definition. Diarrhea (diarrhea) acute - release of liquid feces for up to 2 weeks.
Causes. Immediate causes of diarrhea - increased intestinal peristalsis and liquefaction of its contents due to reduced absorption of water into the blood from the intestine, or increased secretion of moisture in the lumen of the intestine. Acute diarrhea occurs with the following diseases and conditions: acute nonspecific enteritis and pancreatitis, parvovirus, coronavirus, rotavirus, plague enteritis; adenoviral hepatitis, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, staphylococcosis, yersiniosis, helminthiases, cystosisporosis, poisoning with organophosphorus compounds, heavy metals and other poisons; acute liver failure, hypoadrenocorticism. Short-term diarrhea occurs when feeding poor-quality feeds, sometimes - milk and fats.
Symptomatic therapy. Skip 1-2 feeding. Give water in plenty. Instead of water, you can give slightly sweetened weak tea.
Assign astringents: decoctions and infusions of St. John's wort, sage, rhizome of a blood-groove, a tinder, a serpentine, fruits of blueberries, aplicas of alder, pomegranate crusts. Specify rice and oat broth, activated charcoal. The use of antimicrobial agents is shown: biseptol, phthalazole, levomycetin, polymyxin M sulfate. With dehydration appoint inward, intravenously, subcutaneously isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution, 5% glucose solution, "regidron." In the case of the appearance of blood in the fecal masses, drugs that increase blood coagulation are prescribed (see "Blood in the feces").

PONOS CHRONIC
Definition. Diarrhea (diarrhea) chronic - frequent discharge of liquid feces for more than 2 weeks.
Causes: chronic gastritis, chronic enteritis, chronic colitis, pancreatitis, uremia, salmonella, proteus, staphylococcal infections; helminthiases, cystosisporosis, intestinal dysbacteriosis, chronic intoxication, neoplasm, mechanical jaundice, intestinal dyskinesia, digestive enzyme deficiency, autoimmune diseases, A- and PP-avitaminosis.
Symptomatic therapy. Assign astringents (see p.
"Diarrhea acute"), dermatol, chalk, activatedcarbon, the probiotics (laktobakterin, bifidumbakterin, bifikol), enzyme preparations (Festalum, panzinorm, solizim, Digestal) Biseptolum, chloramphenicol, salazopiridazina, salazodimetoksina, Trichopolum, nystatin, multivitamins, karsil, Syrepar, Essentiale

VOMITING
Definition. Vomiting is a reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach (sometimes the duodenum) through the esophagus and mouth outwards. Vomiting is usually preceded by nausea and drooling. In dogs, it occurs easily even with slight emetic stimuli.
Vomiting occurs with direct excitationvomiting center, as well as irritation of sensitive nerve endings of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. Long-term vomiting leads to loss of water and electrolytes by the body of the dog.
Causes. Infectious diseases: enteritis parvovirus, coronavirus enteritis, infectious hepatitis, leptospirosis, distemper (rare), salmonellosis. Helminthiasis, tsistoizosporoz, non-specific enteritis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, gastritis, damage to the central nervous system, allergic conditions, foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract, coprolites, ileus, poisoning, acetonemia, pyometra, tumors, diaphragmatic hernia, strangulated omphalocele , uremia, hypoadrenocorticism, overeating, motion sickness.
Short-term vomiting, not associated with other symptoms, can occur during overeating, motion sickness, eating inedible objects.
Constant and recurring vomiting often occurs with parvoviral enteritis, infectious hepatitis, and helminthiases.
Symptomatic therapy. When poisoning, antiemetics are not prescribed. In other cases, metoclopramide, atropine sulfate, platifillin hydrotartrate, diazepam, etaperazine, diprazine, aminazine, analgin, dimedrol are used. When dehydrated enter inside, rectally, intravenously, subcutaneously solutions of glucose, Ringer, sodium chloride, etc.

Definition. Vomiting bloody - vomiting with an admixture in vomit masses of blood.
Causes. Parvovirus enteritis, leptospirosis, infectious hepatitis, helminthiases, foreign body, allergies, poisoning (heavy metals, rodent control agents, analgesics: aspirin, indomethacin, brufen, butadione), gastric ulcer, hypoadrenocorticism, tumors, autoimmune thrombocytopenia.
Most often, bloody vomiting occurs with parvoviral enteritis, poisoning and immediate type hypersensitivity.
Symptomatic therapy. In addition to antiemetics (see "Vomiting"), hemostatic agents are prescribed: calcium preparations, vikasol, adrenaline, mezaton, ephedrine, inside - astringents (tannin, alum, decoctions and infusions of sage, St. John's Wort, lapchatka, . With allergic genesis, antihistamines (diphenhydramine, diprazine), glucocorticoids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), glucose.

BLOOD IN URINE (HEMATURY AND HEMOGLOBINURIA)
Definition. Hematuria - excretion in the urine of blood, hemoglobinuria - excretion in the urine of hemoglobin. Differentiate hematuria from hemoglobinuria by using microscopy of urine sediment.
Causes. Hemoglobinuria occurs as a result of intravascular hemolysis (pyroplasmosis, leptospirosis, sepsis, liver disease, transfusion hemolysis, poisoning, autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Hematuria is a consequence of kidney and urinary tract diseases (trauma, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, tumors, kidney infarction, urolithiasis, parasites in the kidneys - dioktofimy and dyrofilaria, urocystitis, urethritis, prostatitis), as well as anticoagulant poisoning and other blood coagulation disorders, including number of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Isolation of blood clots in the urine indicates severe bleeding. From hematuria, urethrorrhagia should be distinguished when blood is released from the urethra, regardless of urination, and bleeding from the vagina.
Most often, hemoglobinuria occurs with pyroplasmosis, and hematuria - with trauma or infection of the kidneys and urinary tract.
Symptomatic therapy. Intravenous calcium chloride, intramuscular calcium gluconate, vikasol, vitamin C, mezaton (can be rectally).

ORGANISATION: FREQUENT OR DIFFUSED (DYSURIA)

Definition. Dysuria - rapid, difficult or painful urination. Urine in this case is allocated in small portions.
Causes: urocystitis, prostatitis, urethritis, vaginitis, stone in the ureter and bladder, tumors of the prostate, bladder, urethra, penis, vagina.
Symptomatic therapy. Locally, in the urinary bladder area, if there is no blood in the urine, heat is used. The introduction of antispasmodics (atropine, papaverine, no-shpa), analgesics (analgin, aspirin, paracetamol) is shown. It is better to use drugs that combine antispasmodic and analgesic effects: baralgin, trigan, maxigan, spasmalgin.

Definition. Urinary incontinence (urine incontinence) - involuntary urination.
Causes. Urinary incontinence in dogs can be with nervous excitation, for example, in males in the presence of a female in a hunt, as well as with a bladder overflow, and is physiological. Pathological urinary incontinence occurs in the following diseases and conditions: diseases of the brain and spinal cord, damage to the spinal nerves, stones and tumors of the urethra, cystitis.
Symptomatic therapy. If urinary incontinence is associated with emotional arousal, sedatives are sometimes used (valerian preparations, tranquilizers). In other cases, etiotropic therapy is indicated. Do not limit the amount of water consumed by the dog.

INCREASED ALCOHOL AND URINARY DEPRIVATION (POLYDITION AND POLIURIA)

Definition. Increased thirst and urination (polydipsia and polyuria) - increased water intake and increased volume of excreted urine. These two symptoms are usually related, with the primary one being either the first or the second. The density of urine and the intensity of its color are usually lowered.
Causes: glomerulonephritis, nephrosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, diabetes mellitus, insipid diabetes, hyperadrenocorticism, pyometra, reaction to medicinal substances (diuretics, glucocorticoids), poisoning.
In older dogs, polyuria syndrome + polydipsia is most often associated with diabetes, in females - with a pyometra.
Symptomatic therapy. Animals are provided with free access to water. With prolonged polyuria-polydipsia, instead of water, to prevent the disturbance of water-salt balance, physiological solutions or isotonic sodium chloride solution are evaporated to dogs. In connection with the increased energy expenditure, the animals are provided with a high-calorie diet.

DECREASE OR LACK OF URINE (Oliguria and Anuria)

Definition. Oliguria - a prolonged decrease in the volume of excreted urine. Distinguish between renal (renal) oliguria and extrarenal (extra-renal).
Anuria is the cessation of urine output. Anuria is secretory (cessation of urine formation) and excretory (stopping the flow of urine into the bladder). Both symptoms, characteristic of acute renal failure, due to the possible development of uremia, require urgent veterinary intervention.
Causes: leptospirosis, parvovirus enteritis, dehydration, poisoning with heavy metals, acids, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, carbon tetrachloride and other exo- and endotoxins, heart failure, thrombosis and embolism of renal vessels, massive blood loss, collapse, shock, chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, autoimmune diseases, obstruction of ureters.
Symptomatic therapy. Caffeine, euphyllin, diuretics (furosemide), glucocorticoids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), intravenously 40% and subcutaneously 5% glucose solution are used. The peritoneal dialysis is shown (see).

Definition. Aggressive behavior - the actions of the dog, aimed at causing harm to people or animals. It is necessary to distinguish aggressive behavior associated with defense or an attempt to assert its superiority, from pathological aggressiveness associated with a disease.
Causes: rabies, Auezki's disease, nervous form of plague, encephalitis, neuralgia, brain tumor, hypoxia of the brain, endocrine disorders.
Symptomatic therapy. Neuroleptics (aminazine, piportil, xylazine), tranquilizers (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide), calming agents (valerian preparations), barbiturates (phenobarbital, reladorm) are used. EXCITATION
Definition. Excitation - restless behavior of the dog, characterized by increased irritability and motor activity. Often associated with muscle tremor. It is necessary to distinguish the excited state of a dog, caused by some objective reasons (for example, in males that smell a bitch in a hunt), from excitation associated with some disease or pathological condition.
Causes: hypocalcemia tetany, hypoparathyroidism, epilepsy, encephalitis, ectoparasites, helminths, poisonings (for example, atropine).
Most often in dogs, excitement is associated with hypocalcemic tetany and flea bites.
Symptomatic therapy: prescribe calcium preparations, intramuscular magnesium sulfate, neuroleptics, tranquilizers, sedatives and hypnotics.

INCREASED SKIN SENSITIVITY (HYPERESTHESIA)

Definition. Hyperesthesia - increased sensitivity of the skin to various irritants.
Causes: nervous form of plague, dermatomyositis, inflammatory skin diseases, eczema, atopic dermatitis, myositis, radiculitis, neuralgia, encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis.
Symptomatic therapy: glucocorticoids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (piroxicam, indomethacin, brufen, analgin), neuroleptics (aminazine), tranquilizers (diazepam), vitamins B1, B6, B12, Vs, biotin, PP.

PARALICHS AND PARISES OF LIMBS

Definition. Paralysis is the total impossibility of arbitrary movements, paresis is a partial restriction of the force and volume of voluntary movements due to violation of innervation. May be accompanied by an increase (usually at the beginning of the disease) and a decrease in skin-muscular sensitivity. With a long flow often develops muscle atrophy. There are also monoplegia - paralysis (paresis) of one limb, tetraplegia - paralysis of four limbs, paraplegia - paralysis of two anterior or two hind limbs and hemiplegia - paralysis of the right or left half of the body.
Causes. Monoplegia and paraplegia: infectious diseases (plague carnivorous, rabies), encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, cerebral or spinal cord hemorrhage, spinal stroke, radiculitis, plexitis, traumas of the extremities and spinal cord, tumors, bone fractures, intoxication, allergic polyneuropathy. Most often, dogs have paraparesis of the hind limbs due to lumbosacral radiculitis.
Hemiplegia: infectious diseases (carnivore plague), meningoencephalitis, brain abscess caused by infectious and parasitic agents, trauma, swelling, cerebral hemorrhages, cerebral hemorrhages, cerebral infarction.
Tetraplegia: infectious diseases (plague carnivorous, rabies), trauma of the cervical spine, polyneuropathy of infectious-allergic or toxic origin.
Symptomatic therapy. Glucocorticoids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), non-narcotic analgesics (piroxicam, indomethacin), diuretics (furosemide), spasmolytics (no-shpa, baralgin), vitamins B1, B12, PP, glutamic acid are used. In case of infectious-allergic genesis, antihistamines (diphenhydramine, diprazine) are indicated. With lowered muscle tone anticholinesterase drugs (oxazil, proserine, galantamine), strychnine nitrate, duplex, as well as nootropics - piracetam, aminalon, pyriditol are used.

CONSCIOUSNESS OF LOSS (FALSE, COMA)

Definition. Fainting is a short-term loss of consciousness due to cerebral ischemia. Coma is a prolonged loss of consciousness or severe oppression due to damage to the central nervous system. Fainting and coma can be accompanied by cramps.
Causes. Fainting: heart rhythm disturbances, rapid transition from horizontal to vertical state, lung diseases, hemorrhage, poisoning with diuretics and antispasmodics.
Coma: trauma of the brain (traumatic to.), stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (apoplexy), encephalitis, meningitis, tumors, infectious and parasitic diseases, intoxications, pancreatic necrosis (pancreatic cancer), hepatonecrosis and other forms of acute hepatic insufficiency (hepatic cancer), hyperglycemia (diabetic k.). ), hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, uremia (uremic cancer), hypothyroidism, hypoadrenocorticism, loss of water and salts by the body due to prolonged vomiting and diarrhea (chlorhydropenic k.), hyperthermia.
Symptomatic therapy. In most cases, administration of intravenous, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal injection of 5% glucose solution, isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution, Ringer-Lock, 4% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, rheopolyglucin.
The solutions are administered in a single dose up to 20 ml / kg. To maintain cardiac activity (in the absence of signs of excitation of the central nervous system), use cordiamin, sulfocamphocaine, strophanthin, adrenomimetics - mezaton, ephedrine, adrenaline. With uremic coma, diuretics are indicated, peritoneal dialysis, and in case of vomiting - atropine and metoclopramide. Treatment for other types of coma, see the relevant sections of the handbook

Definition. Convulsions are involuntary muscle contractions.
There are convulsions - generalizedabrupt contractions of the muscles of the body; tonic convulsions - slow, prolonged muscle contractions; Clonic convulsions - often repeated contractions and relaxation of muscles; epileptic seizure - an attack accompanied by loss of consciousness of generalized clonic-tonic convulsions.
Causes. Infectious diseases: plague carnivorous, rabies, tetanus; invasive diseases: toxoplasmosis, helminthiases; hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, cerebral hypoxia, hyperthermia, cerebral edema, cerebral hemorrhages, brain tumors, hydrocephalus, encephalitis, poisonings, uremia.
In dogs, most often convulsions without loss of consciousness are with hypocalcemia, hypoxia and helminthiases, and seizures with loss of consciousness - with epilepsy.
Symptomatic therapy. During an attack, magnesium sulfate, ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine, diazepam, aminazine, diprazine (and other antihistamines), thiopental sodium, hexenal are used intramuscularly. In inter-seizure period prescribe diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine, clonazepam. When hypoxia is used oxygen therapy. With intoxications, hydrocephalus, uremia, edema of the brain - diuretics (furosemide). If suspected hypocalcemic tetany (nursing bitch) - magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride (slowly intravenously) and calcium gluconate, vitamin D.

Definition. Bleeding from the vagina - discharge from the vagina of blood that has not arisen, blood clots or an admixture of blood in the vaginal discharge. In physiological quantities, blood is present in the discharge from the vagina during estrus and after childbirth. In most cases, the source of bleeding is in the uterus.
Causes: endometritis, tumors, follicular cysts, persistence of follicles, spontaneous abortion, postpartum hypotension of the uterus, trauma.
Symptomatic therapy. Applied uterotonic drugs: oxytocin, pituitrin, cotarnine chloride, methylergometrine, ergotal, ergotamine hydrotartrate, pachycarpine hydroiodide, spherofizin benzoate. Cutting the uterus drugs are contraindicated in pregnancy. To increase blood clotting appoint Vikassol, calcium preparations. Adrenomimetics (mezaton, epinephrine, ephedrine), ascorbic acid and askorutin narrow and strengthen the vessels. With prolonged bleeding appoint inward herbal preparations: infusions and extracts of a shepherd's bag, water pepper.

BLEEDING MULTIPLE (HEMORRAGIC DIETHESIS)

Definition. Bleeding multiple (hemorrhagic diathesis) - a tendency to bleeding and hemorrhage.
Causes.
1.Reduced coagulability of blood: hereditary deficiency of coagulation factors - II (hypoprothrombinemia), VII (hypoproconvertinemia), VIII (hemophilia A), IX (hemophilia B), X, XI; liver diseases leading to a deficiency of clotting factors; poisoning with anticoagulants - zoocides (zookoumarin, etc.); overdose of drugs - anticoagulants (heparin, neodicumarin); autoimmune deficiencies of clotting factors; avitaminosis K, hypocoagulant phase of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.
2. Thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopathy: hereditary thrombocytopenia, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, splenomegalic thrombocytopenia, thrombastenia, disaggregation thrombocytopathy, medicinal thrombocytopathies (aspirin, indomethacin, phenothiazine, etc.).
3. Increased permeability of capillaries: hemorrhagic vasculitis, infectious-allergic and toxicogenic angiopathies.
Symptomatic therapy. Assign glucocorticoids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), vikasol, calcium preparations, ascorbic acid, ascorutin. Transfusion of fresh blood is indicated. When poisoning with anticoagulants - forced diuresis.

MOVEMENTS OF THE MOVEMENT (ATAXIA, ADANAMIYA)

Definition. Ataxia - a violation of coordination of movements, manifested, for example, by movement in a circle, unsteadiness of gait, falls. Adynamia is a muscle weakness that manifests itself as a deposit.
Causes. Ataxia: internal otitis, neuritis VIII cranial nerve, head trauma, tumor, hereditary abnormality, poisoning, infectious and parasitic diseases.
Adynamia: any disease and condition leading to exhaustion or loss of strength.
Symptomatic therapy. Ataxia: antibiotics, diuretics, anti-inflammatory drugs (prednisolone, piroxicam), vitamins B1, B6, B12, PP.
Adynamia: high-grade high-calorie feeding, glucose, eleutherococcus and levsea extracts, multivitamins, riboxin, retabolyl, proserin, strychnine nitrate.

Definition. Peripheral edema is an excessive accumulation of fluid in soft tissues, mainly in the subcutaneous tissue of the breast, abdomen and extremities.
Causes. Unsymmetrical local edema: trauma, infection, allergy, inflammation, squeezing of the limb, injection of a large amount of fluid, as well as irritating and necrotic drugs, bites of poisonous animals.
Symmetric edema: increased hydrostatic venous pressure and worsening of venous outflow due to heart failure; decreased oncotic blood pressure due to loss of proteins in kidney disease (amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome), enteropathy, prolonged bleeding, and decreased protein production in liver diseases (cirrhosis) and fasting; increased capillary permeability in infections, intoxications, allergies; myxedema due to hypothyroidism.
Symptomatic therapy depends on the nature of the edema. With inflammatory edema, antimicrobial agents and hypertensive solutions are used, allergic and toxico-allergic (bites of poisonous animals) - antihistamines (diphenhydramine), glucocorticoids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), vitamin C, rutin (ascorutin), intravenous calcium chloride. Heart failure shows cardiac glycosides (digitoxin), diuretics (furosemide) and potassium preparations.
When renal edema is prescribed diuretics (furosemide, euphyllin), glucocorticoids, salt-free diet.

Definition. Raising body temperature (fever) - a one-stage, periodic or permanent excess of normal rectal body temperature (dogs - 39 degrees Celsius).
Causes. A short-term increase in body temperature may be in puppies due to imperfection of the mechanisms of thermoregulation, in adult dogs - with intensive muscular work during the hot season. As a reaction of the body, fever occurs in infectious diseases, invasive (rarely), inflammatory processes in various organs, with neoplasms (not always), poisoning with certain substances (ivomek, nitrofurans, vitamins D2 and D3, iodine, carbon tetrachloride, organochlorine pesticides, ethylene glycol ), hypocalcemic tetany, meningoencephalitis.
Symptomatic therapy. Since fever is a protective-adaptive reaction of the body, do not take measures to reduce body temperature, if it does not exceed 40 degrees Celsius. Otherwise, antipyretic agents are used: amidopyrine, analgin, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), phenacetin, paracetamol, and also combined preparations. Sometimes candles containing antipyretic substances ("Cefekon"), antihistamines (diphenhydramine, diprazine) and antipsychotics (aminazine) are used. With an increase in body temperature to 42 degrees Celsius and the development of this comatose state resorted to dousing or submerging the body in cold water.

Definition. Lowering body temperature - reducing the rectal body temperature of less than 37.5 degrees Celsius.
Causes: hypothermia, loss of strength due to severe pathological conditions, poisoning, enteritis (in most cases), dehydration, intense blood loss.
Symptomatic therapy. The dog is warmed by wrapping, blowing with warm air, irradiating with infrared and visible light, immersion in warm water. Of the drugs used analeptics (cordiamin, sulfokamfokain).

Definition. Enlargement of lymph nodes is a local or common enlargement of the lymph nodes. At the same time, their consistency can change.
Causes: local inflammatory processes, lymphadenitis, sepsis, systemic mycoses, chronic bacterial infections, lymphosarcoma, leukemia, metastases, reactive lymph node hyperplasia.
Symptomatic therapy. In inflammatory lymphadenopathies, antimicrobial agents, analgesics, and, if necessary, surgical intervention are indicated. With tumorous diseases, cytostatics and glucocorticoids are used.

Definition. An increase in joints is an increase or increase in the volume of one or more joints observed or detected during palpation.
Causes. Symmetrical enlargement of joints: increased growth of puppies, rickets, dysplasia of hip joints (inheritance