Laryngeal edema in adults
Swelling of the throat is not an independent nosological unit, but a manifestation of some pathologies in the body.
Locations of throat edema:
- Friable submucosal tissue of the larynx,
- Vestibular or cherpalodnagortannye folds,
- Arythmoid cartilage,
- The lingual surface of the larynx.
In adults, the throat of the larynx swells, and in children there is a lining space. Usually, the swelling of the throat is a one-sided pathology, often mimicking the abscess of the larynx.
With non-inflammatory pathological processsoft tissue impregnated with serous transudate, which disconnects the fibers, and with acute inflammation, an exudate is formed containing a large number of erythrocytes. With a cold. trauma or acute infectious disease, the swelling of the throat quickly spreads to all layers of the larynx.
- Limited - a slight increase in tissue,
- Diffuse or diffuse is the expressed narrowing of the larynx, which makes breathing difficult.
Swelling of the throat occurs in weakened individuals as a result of exposure to the body of streptococcal toxins. The risk group usually includes patients with influenza. scarlatina. diabetes, and emaciated patients with symptoms of uremia and beriberi.
Factors contributing to the development of throat swelling:
- Ingestion of foreign bodies,
- Hot food, which leads to burning of soft tissues,
- X-ray and radiological impact on the organs of the neck,
- Subcooling by inhaling cold air or drinking cold beer or milk,
- Acute viral infections are measles. influenza, typhus,
- Acute bacterial infections - scarlet fever, diphtheria,
- Inflammation of the larynx, tonsils, okolohlotochnogo space, epiglottis - epiglotitis, phlegmon and abscesses,
- Chronic renal and cardiovascular pathology,
- Violation of blood circulation, caused by compression of the veins of the neck,
- Benign and malignant tumors of the larynx,
- Allergy to external stimuli - dust, household and food allergens,
- Phlegmotic inflammation of the larynx.
Acute inflammation of the larynx with rapidflow of flu, erysipelas, scarlet fever is accompanied by a pronounced edema of the throat, which also develops rapidly and extends to the whole submucosa from the threshold of the larynx to the lining space.
Pathological signs of oedematous laryngitis are:
- Reddening of the mucosa,
- Infiltration of mucous leukocytes and lymphocytes,
- Impregnation of the submucosal layer with serous transudate,
- Activation of the mucous glands of the larynx.
Any pathology at which it is possible the development of edema of the throat, at the initial stage is manifested by slight discomfort in the throat and minor pain when swallowing . In the future, the severity of clinical manifestations of the disease depends on the rate of accumulation of inflammatory fluid in the soft tissues of the neck. The faster the laryngeal lumen narrows, the stronger the pain in the throat becomes. there is hoarseness of the voice, dry cough. As a result, there may be an asthma attack that is dangerous to human life. These symptoms are typical for swelling of the throat caused by a cold or allergy.
Patients with swollen throat complain of pain when swallowing and phonation, headache, fever, severe chills, difficulty breathing. The mucous membrane of the throat is hyperemic,Injected, the vocal cords acquire the form of cylindrical protrusions, the vocal cricle narrowed. During an attack of dry cough, the pain increases, and the infection spreads quickly to neighboring areas, which leads to the development of purulent complications. In the absence of treatment, the pain radiates into the ear, the voice's tone changes, inspiratory dyspnea appears, and voice functions are significantly affected - aphonia develops. These signs of respiratory failure in extreme cases require a tracheotomy.
This pathology develops when certain allergens are exposed to the body - food, dust, medicines, animal wool.
Allergen, got into the body by airborne droplets, causes swelling of soft tissues in the epiglottis region. If the allergens penetrate through the esophagus, then the arytenoid cartilages flow.
Characteristic features of an allergic edema of the throat:
- Develops rapidly,
- Accompanied by loss of voice,
- Is dangerous for human life,
- Causes suffocation.
The mucous membrane of the laryngopharynx is pale pink, translucent, gelatinous.
Angina in the absence of timely andAdequate treatment is often complicated by swelling of the larynx. This is especially characteristic of follicular and necrotic forms of the disease. The walls of the larynx become inflamed, the throat channel narrows, pain appears.
Symptoms of swelling of the throat in acute infection:
- A sore throat,
- Difficulty breathing,
- Hoarseness of voice,
- Difficulty in eating.
To correctly diagnose, it is necessary to determine the location of the swelling, the rate of edema and the difficulty of breathing.
The swelling of the larynx develops rapidly and often ends with asphyxia. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to treat the sore throat with drugs prescribed by specialists on time. Self-medication and complete disregard for angina are strictly prohibited.
Swelling of the tongue in the throat
The tongue swells with acute infections, allergies or trauma.
- Hereditary angioedema of the tongue is a rather rare phenomenon, transmitted by inheritance and requiring urgent medical attention.
- When allergic edema of the tongue is accompanied by local reactions - edema of the throat, a rash on the skin.
- With an acute infection, the body temperature rises, hyperemia and pain in the throat appear. The main cause of edema of the tongue is angina.
Swelling of the tongue is one of the symptoms of various pathologies requiring urgent medical attention. With the transition of the edema to the surrounding tissues, the symptoms of the disease increase, and the patient's condition worsens.
Non-inflammatory throat swelling is aimpregnation and disconnection of the fibers of the connective tissue by a transudate-serous fluid that does not contain blood cells. It develops in patients with cardiac and renal pathology, oncology, allergies, hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland, as well as in depleted individuals.
Non-inflammatory swelling of the throat usually covers the entire larynx, completely smoothes out its contours, has the appearance of a mild aggravated swelling.
Patients have a sensation of an outsidersubject in the throat, hoarseness of voice, change in timbre. They often choke on food and experience difficulty breathing. The mucous membrane becomes translucent, yellowish or grayish, its surface swells.
Swelling of the throat in children
Swelling of the throat in the child - symptom of a number of childhood diseases: cereal, diphtheria of the larynx, allergy, laryngospasm, zaglugal abscess, epiglottitis.
- Croup in children - an emergency that requires emergency diagnosis and treatment. Development of croup is promoted by some features of a structure of a children's organism. In children, the airways are rather narrow,The mucous membrane is prone to edema, and the respiratory muscle is weak. Pathology is manifested by stridor, hoarseness of voice and "barking" cough. If the child has a swollen throat, it is necessary to eliminate the spasm and restore the disturbed breathing.
- Dysfunction of larynx - infectious pathology, which is characterized bya gradual onset, a stable course and an increase in symptoms. The voice of a sick child becomes hoarse, aphonia develops. Treatment of the disease consists in administering to the patient the antidiphtheria serum.
- Allergic swelling of the throat occurs under the influence of an allergen- food, medicine, household. Usually, the pathology occurs in children who have a history of atopic dermatitis, hives, or Quincke's edema. To remove the swelling of the throat will help antihistamines and glucocorticoids.
- Laryngospasm - involuntary contraction of the muscles of the larynx,leading to the closure of the glottis. The disease manifests itself as inspiratory dyspnea, noisy, wheezing, pallor and cyanosis of the skin, cold sweat, short-term stopping of breathing. Carbon dioxide, accumulating in the body, irritates the respiratory center, which leads to the restoration of rhythmic breathing.
- Epiglottite Inflammatory epiglottis disease,It is caused by a hemophilic rod and disturbs the patency of the respiratory tract. There is a pathology of high fever, wheezing, difficulty swallowing, exhaustion, irritability, severe sore throat.
With a strong swelling of the throat against the background of infectious epiglottitis, the child takes a forced position: sitting with an outstretched neck and an open mouth, leaning slightly forward.</ li>
Diagnosis is carried out by an otorhinolaryngologist,based on the patient's complaints, a history of the disease, these palpation and laryngoscopy. Auxiliary methods of investigation are bronchoscopy and chest X-ray.
Laryngoscopic signs of edema of the throat: tumor-like formation of a gelatinous consistency, absence of contours of parts located in the area of edema. Direct laryngoscopy can worsen the patient's condition, lead to spasm of the larynx, end asphyxiation and death.
Laboratory diagnosis consists in conducting a general blood test, in which inflammatory changes are detected - neutrophilic leukocytosis with a shift of the formula to the left.
Quick-action measures with pronounced swelling of the throat:
- Diuretic drugs - Furosemide, Hypothiazide, Indapamide,
- Sedatives and tranquilizers - Sibazon,
- Antihypoxants and antioxidants - "Actovegin", "Panangin", "
- Vitamins - Vitrum,
- Antihistamines - Diazolin, Tavegil,
- Anti-inflammatory, antiallergic agent - "Prednisolone"
- Dehydration is an intravenous solution of glucose, calcium chloride, ascorbic acid,
- Sitting position of the patient,
- Hot foot baths,
- Gorcini on the calf muscles,
- Ingestion of ice pieces,
- Restriction of drinking,
- Liquid and semi-liquid food.
If the cause of the edema of the throat is infectious pathology, then patients are prescribed antibiotics or sulfonamides. Symptomatic therapy consists in the use of antipyretic drugs, antihistamines and restorative products - vitamins.
With lightning flow, the swelling of the throat can lead to the development of acute asphyxia requiring tracheotomy.