Bouillon fatty edema
Production of emulsified meat productshigh quality is possible only under the condition of constant monitoring of the characteristics of incoming raw materials and the parameters of its processing. The following factors influence the quality of the finished product: the morphological and chemical composition of the raw materials, its state by the type of refrigeration, the maturing period and the degree of development of autolysis, the pH of the meat, the time and method of salting, the conditions for the preparation of meat emulsions and its stability, heat treatment parameters and etc.
Evaluation of the quality of raw materials in productionconditions is extremely difficult due to the heterogeneity of its morphological and chemical composition, however, this control must be carried out continuously, beginning with determining the fatness of animals before and after slaughter.
For the needs of sausage production, from the technological and economic point of view, it is more appropriate to use beef of category II, containing more muscle and less - adipose tissue.
The best raw material is meat with protein content inlimits of 20% and fat of 3-4%, tk. an increase in the amount of fat in meat emulsions of more than 20% leads to a decrease in their stability, a decrease in water binding capacity, a deterioration in organoleptic parameters.
For the production of emulsified meat productsYou can use paired, chilled, frozen and thawed raw materials; for the manufacture of coarsely ground (smoked) sausages - chilled and frozen. The bacon should be frozen to preserve its shape and to prevent clumping of the pieces.
Importance of the pH value of meat - asthe criterion for the correct selection of meat, the pH value is an objective measurable criterion for the evaluation of raw materials (pH-negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions:). The pH should be determined both immediately after slaughter (after 30-40 min.), and when cutting carcasses in the first stages of sausage production.
The pH of the medium has a significant effect on the state of proteins and, consequently, on the qualitative characteristics and yield of emulsified meat products.
TECHNOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF RECEPTURES
Influence on the quality of finished products
Consequences with excessive introduction
Forms and stabilizes emulsions. Forms a water binding ability. Forms color, increases stickiness and monolithicity
Increases nutritional and biological value, improves organoleptic characteristics (tenderness, texture, consistency), improves yield
Dark color, stiffness, dryness. Decrease in profitability
Adipose tissue (oily and semi-fat pork)
Component of water-protein-fat emulsion
Reduces water-binding and gel-forming ability. Affects structural and mechanical properties. Forms organoleptic indicators
Forms the level of energy value. Improves plasticity, consistency, tenderness, juiciness, smell, taste. Mandatory dispersion
Destabilization of emulsion; looseness; bouillon-fatty edema
Connective tissue. Second-class by-products
An integral part of meat systems. Emulsion Filler
In raw form increases stiffness, reduceswater-binding, emulsifying, fat-absorbing ability. After heat treatment in a homogenized form, it forms gels, increases water-binding capacity. Poorly binds fat
Reduces biological value. Increases the output. Worsens organoleptic characteristics. Gives solidity. Reduces broth-fatty edema
Fat edema. Reduce the intensity of aroma and taste of spices. Gives a specific undesirable taste; distort the color
Plant protein preparations (isolates of soy proteins, lentils, etc.)
Form and stabilize emulsions. Increase gel-forming, water and liposity. Form the texture. Increase stickiness. Compensate for deficiency of muscle proteins. Stabilize the properties of emulsions at elevated temperatures
Increase biological and reduce energy value. Improve the texture, juiciness, tenderness. Increase output
Reducing the degree of odor and taste. "Dilution" of color. Improving profitability
Form and stabilize emulsions. Increase the water-binding and gel-forming ability. Increase monolithicity and stickiness
Increase nutritional and biological value. Provide solidity, increase output
Rubber-like consistency. Decrease in profitability
Skimmed milk powder, sodium caseinate
Forms and stabilizes emulsions. Increases water-binding and fat-absorbing capacity. Increases monolithicity
Increases nutritional and biological value. Improves texture, tenderness. Increases output
Extraneous smack. "Dilution" of color. Decrease in profitability
The use of meat with a higher pH (meat with DFD), or an artificial shift in the pH of the raw material to the alkaline side (with the introduction of phosphates) makes it possible to increase the stability of meat emulsions, increase yield, and improve product quality.
However, excessively high pH (above 6.5)can cause the appearance of undesirable dark color from the raw material, inhibit the process of color formation. In addition, such meat is more susceptible to microbiological damage and is not suitable for the production of fermented sausages, natural and chopped semi-finished products.
Meat with lower pH values (meat withsigns of PSE) in the range 5.0-5.6 has a low water-binding capacity, forms bouillon-fat edema and is unsuitable for individual use in the production of emulsified meat products; can be applied only after the modification of its functional and technological properties in complex use with soy protein isolates. The meat with a low pH level is most acceptable for the production of raw and smoked sausages.
Particular attention should be paid to fresh meat. The content of extractable soluble soluble proteins in it is more than 50% higher than in the cooled one, the pH is at a sufficiently high level, which is why paired meat has the most pronounced emulsifying and water-binding capacity.
Duration of meat aging from the moment of slaughterof the animal before machining must not exceed 3 hours. The temperature in the production facilities for the preparation of raw materials for sausage production should be: in the slaughter shop 19 0 C, in the transport corridors (refrigerator) 8. 12, in the raw materials shop 12 0 C. With the pork carcasses must be removed from the bacon in the form of a layer.
The most effective use of the specific features of the functional and technological properties of paired meat can be carried out in production conditions by:
Ø Immediate submission of raw materials after slaughter to sausage production;
Ø quick freezing of meat in a paired state and subsequent use as necessary;
Ø grinding of paired meat, mixing it with salt, ice (snow), sodium nitrite solution and soaking for up to 10-12 hours.
The introduction of table salt into fresh meatprevents the onset of postmortem rigor mortis, provides stabilization of the status of proteins of the actomyosin complex and thereby prevents the level of its emulsifying and water-binding capacity from decreasing. Meat emulsions from paired raw materials better bind fat, which is due to a higher content of soluble proteins and the severity of their functional and technological properties.
For the production of emulsified meat productsit is possible to use ice cream block meat, while it is recommended to use the following to increase the stability of the resulting emulsions, yield and improve the quality of finished products:
Ø introduction into the formulation of proteins of plant origin;
Ø Combination of ice cream and paired meat (25-35%).
Meat raw materials sent to sausageproduction, should be subjected to thorough veterinary and sanitary inspection and technological inspection, to remove any possible contamination, serous film, flank, and incision. The main task of cutting, boning and lining is to extract the parts and cuts that are suitable for making natural semi-finished products, piece, salted and delicatessen.
Depending on the type of meat processingenterprises and from the existing system of sales (full processing of raw materials for sausage production, release of raw materials into trade in the form of half-carcasses or individual cuts, production of natural semi-finished products, etc.), different methods of cutting meat halves can be used after they are cooled.
Cutting allows differentiating differentparts of the carcass by quality: chemical composition, the ratio of muscle and bone tissue, functional and technological properties, the level of food and biological value, in appearance, taking into account the direction of the subsequent technological use of raw materials.
the main task cutting in foreign companies - providingthe maximum degree of sale of meat in kind (cut, semi-finished products, salted and piece products), which significantly increases profitability of production. Raw materials of reduced grade, obtained during cutting, are sent to the needs of sausage production.
Thus. both economically and technologically, it is advisable to use second category beef and lean beef in sausage production, and in the production of cuts, packaged meat and natural semi-finished products - beef of the 1st category.
Preparation of meat for cutting
Before sending to cutting meat carcasses (carcasses) are inspected by veterinary and sanitary doctors for the purpose of determining the presentation and further use.
Chilled and thawed carcasses (carcases,quarters) are cleaned from dirt, blood clots, and also remove stamps. If necessary, after a dry cleaning, carcases (half carcasses, quarters) are washed with water having a temperature of 30 to 50 ° C under pressure in a washer or from a hose with brushes.
Frozen meat is thawed.
Frozen meat, directed to defrost, must meet the requirements of the current regulatory documentation.