Local swelling of the skin
Edema is the accumulation of a watery part of the blood or lymph (transudate) in the intercellular tissue spaces of the human body.
Edema can be local or general, acutearising and chronic, increasing slowly or at a catastrophic rate. In this case, the transudate can accumulate in the intercellular spaces of the subcutaneous tissue (tissue edema) or in various body cavities (in the abdominal or thoracic, in the heart bag).
The appearance and preservation of edema indicatesin the human body, therefore, requires examination and treatment. Acute and rapidly developing tissue edema leading to severe squeezing of the underlying parts of the body, the threat of suffocation or heart failure, call for emergency medical care. Timely begun the qualified therapy of an inflammatory edema in many cases will help to avoid its surgical opening.
- Allergic diseases and reactions (angioedema, anaphylactic reaction andlocal changes to insect bites, skin contact with allergenic substances, drug administration). For edema is characterized by rapid growth with the possible development of a life-threatening condition due to lower blood pressure, compression of the trachea or pharynx. When edema of the intestinal wall with food allergies, cramping pains are observed in various parts of the abdomen, flatulence, nausea.
- Diseases of the kidneys and other organs, leading to a violation of the formation and outflow of urine. The most significant are acute and chronic renal failure, systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, urolithiasis. gout, interstitial nephritis. A characteristic feature of renal edema is their appearance in the morning on the face and eyelids with a gradual spread throughout the body with the progression of renal failure. They are pale, warm and soft to the touch.
- Heart failure with heart and vascular defects, postinfarction andatherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, myocarditis. Cardiac edema occurs primarily in the lower half of the trunk (on the legs or in the area of the sacrum in bedridden patients). They are usually watery, the skin is cold, cyanotic, with the formation of moknutia, shines and bursts easily.
- Endocrine pathology. For hypothyroidism is characterized by dense(myxedema) edema of the legs and eyelids, for the Itenko-Cushing disease - edema of the face as "moon-shaped." Pronounced edema often accompanies obesity, pituitary and adrenal diseases with hypokalemia.
- Protein-deficient conditions with hepatic insufficiency (cirrhosis andhepatitis), fasting, severe insufficiency of digestive enzymes, uncontrolled intake of laxatives. Characteristically, the accumulation of transudate in body cavities, especially in the abdominal and thoracic, with an increase in the volume of the stomach, shortness of breath and increased heart rate.
- Overdose of diuretics, solutions for infusion therapy, excessdrunk liquid, especially sweet or after consuming a large amount of salt or smoked products. In these situations, the face, fingers, and feet swell first.
- Pregnancy. Physiological swelling of the legs occurs due to compression of the veins of the pelvis with an enlarged uterus. Pathological - with dropsy of pregnant women and gestosis.
- Microbial inflammation of the tissue (furuncle, carbuncle, abscess, phlegmon, eczema, exudative-catarrhal diathesis). The peculiarity of inflammatory edema is pulsating pain, fever, increased density and redness of the skin.
- Inflammation of the organ, leading to the accumulation of exudate (inflammatoryfluid) in the surrounding cavity or tissue: pneumonia and pleurisy, exudative pericarditis, encephalitis or meningitis with hydrocephalic syndrome, osteomyelitis, thrombophlebitis. Clinical features of developing edema depend on the underlying disease and the infectious agent that caused it.
- Injuries (bruises of soft tissues, fractures of bones, dislocations),burns and frostbites of 1-2 degrees. Edema occurs in the area of damage, capturing different depths of the skin, limiting the mobility of the affected limb. Perhaps the emergence of not only a dense tissue edema, but also bubbles filled with transudate.
- Regardless of the underlying causes, thesigns of tissue edema are a local increase and blanching of the affected area of the body, its cold snap, test density and a decrease in elasticity, thinning of the skin with an increased gloss over the place of fluid accumulation.
- Inflammatory swelling is hot to the touch, usually painful, with reddening of the skin above the affected area.
- With cavitary swelling there are signsinsufficiency of the organ subjected to compression of the exudate fluid: rapid heart rate, shortness of breath with superficial breathing and participation of auxiliary muscles, lowering of arterial pressure, violation of intestinal peristalsis, enlargement of the liver and stomach volume, pronounced venous pattern on the skin of the anterior abdominal wall.
- With tissue edema of the legs due to compression of the veins of the pregnant uterus, their increase in the evening and decrease in the morning are noted.
Treatment of edema is inseparable from therapythe main disease with the use of cardiac, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial drugs, protein-containing solutions for infusion therapy. Spasmolytic and vascular drugs are effective. With allergic fast-developing edema, vasoconstrictive, antihistamine and hormonal agents are urgently applied, local cold. With skin diseases, ointments with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiallergic and hormonal components are useful.
What kind of doctors it makes sense to visit
If swelling develops, refer totherapist who, in the process of examination, can send an additional consultation for a nephrologist, cardiologist, urologist, gastroenterologist, allergist, dermatologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon.