Swelling of the heart muscle
- inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). Most often it develops in childhood with rheumatism, but sometimes occurs with inf. diseases (diphtheria, typhoid fever, angina, scarlet fever, sepsis, influenza, etc.). Rheumatic myocarditis (rheumatic carditis) is often combined with endocarditis. Myocarditis can also be an allergy, of nature, due to the increased sensitivity of the myocardium to certain microbes and the products of their decay, as well as to certain medicinal products (see Allergy).
With the course of myocarditis can be acute andchronic. When acute M. often develop shortness of breath, cyanosis, swelling of the cervical veins, enlargement of the liver, edema on the legs. Such forms are relatively rare. More often M. flows latent; complaints of patients on pain in the region of the heart, violations of the rhythm of heartbeats, palpitations, dyspnea and weakness, rapid fatigue are possible. All these phenomena are intensified when phys. tension. The temperature can be normal or slightly elevated. This condition is often preceded by angina, sinusitis, etc.
The chronicle. forms of M. are rare and are observed in tuberculosis, syphilis and rheumatism.
M. in children can be observed with many inf. diseases. Diphtheria M. develops usually in the second week of the disease and is characterized by a rather severe course. The typhoid M. develops on the 3rd-4th week. from the onset of typhoid fever, and sometimes in the period of recovery. Its flow is more favorable. With sepsis, myocarditis is severe.
Treatment of patients with M. conducted in hospital. Modern medicines are very effective in combating its various forms. Of great importance in the treatment of M. has a diet: the food of patients must be easily digestible, rich in vitamins and consist of dairy and vegetable dishes, boiled meat and fish; Limit the intake of liquid and table salt, especially when heart failure occurs. After the disappearance of the symptoms of heart failure (edema, dyspnea at rest, etc.), prescribe lech. physical education under strict medical supervision.
Begin with breathing exercises and exercisesfor small and medium muscular groups of hands and feet. With a well-being of the patient, the volume of the hymen-nastich. Exercises gradually expand, and with an easy flow of M. lech. Physical education is prescribed from the first days of the disease.
The prognosis for M. depends on its origin: M. emerged against the background of inf. the disease, as a rule, ends in recovery. Rheumatic and infectious-allergic M. characterized by a tendency to relapse. However, follow-up and timely preventive care. Treatment of rheumatic and infectious-allergic M. prevents its relapse.
Prevention M is to prevent and timely treatment of diseases that cause M. Particular attention is paid to the control of focal infection (tonsillitis, maxillary sinusitis, etc.).