Swelling of the baby
Swelling in children.
Often parents complain about the occurrence ofchildren of edema - usually local or general edema, that is, swelling of only one, limited area or even flow of the whole body. Where does this come from? Essentially, this swelling is an excessive accumulation of tissue fluid in different parts of the body. There are swelling due to various painful causes and require attention from the physician and parents, since they can be one of the first signals of diseases of the internal organs - the heart or kidneys. Let's take a closer look at edema and their origin.
First of all, puffiness attractsattention if it is strongly pronounced, if it is a local and a large swelling. A small fluid retention in the body can remain undetected for a long time until the puffiness becomes strong enough. Especially draw attention to edemas on the face, on the limbs - hands and feet, when it is difficult to move your hands or feet (fingers). In children, swelling rarely occurs against a background of complete health, episodic, due to external causes, usually these are signs of serious enough health problems and should not be ignored. In adolescents, edema can occur as a consequence of hormonal changes in the body and disorders in metabolism.
Where does the water for the swelling come from?
To understand the mechanisms of edema,Determine the content of fluid in the body and its redistribution throughout the body. First of all, the body of a child and an adult can not exist without a liquid, all kinds of reactions take place in the water environment. That is why the body is 80-85% water, and without a constant supply of water into the body the child will not be able to live and be healthy. Worse than with water is the case only with a lack of oxygen. In children, the body is more hydrophilic, that is, it is saturated with water, the tissues of children are more friable and watery, swelling occurs faster and easier, especially with a decrease in age.
All body water is divided into three sectors:
- intracellular water - makes up about a third of the total body weight, it practically does not play a role in the development of edema.
- intravascular fluid - it's blood, lymph,which circulate through the vessels and are sufficiently mobile - make up about 8% of the body weight. Due to fluctuations in the permeability of the vessel walls and the penetration of plasma from the vessels into the tissues, plays an important role in edema,
- extracellular fluid - is about 15% of body weight - it is the liquid that is washing the cells from the outside. Gathering between cavities and organs. It is also important in the mechanism of edema formation.
All these water sectors are not separated from each otherdeaf walls, they actively exchange liquid among themselves, water can easily penetrate through semipermeable membranes, both in one and the other direction. If the concentration in one of the sectors of certain substances (ions) is violated, it can lead to edema formation. Usually, swelling occurs due to the increase in the amount of fluid between cells - there fluid comes from cells or from vessels, especially when exposed to negative factors.
Types of edema.
Edema is a serious enough symptom thatcan visually demonstrate the presence in the body of any disease or pathological condition. In this case, the manifestation of many edemas requires an immediate start of examination and treatment. To identify swelling, it is necessary to determine the location of the edema, its characteristics - dense or soft when probing, what color the skin is above the puffiness zone, whether there is a temperature in the area of edema. It is necessary to press the finger on the puffiness zone to determine the hydrophilicity of the tissues (the degree of impregnation of the tissue with water).
Usually, when puffiness appears pitted, whichgradually straightened out. It indicates an increase in swelling and a decrease in the elasticity of tissues. But as the edema increases, the trace from the fossa becomes less pronounced and the pressure trail passes faster. If you put the skin in a fold, you can feel the doughiness of the tissues, the fold spreads slowly, in the places where the fingers were pressed, pits are detected.
Edema can be common - this is a positivethe balance of water in the body, means that the liquid enters the body more than it is excreted. In this case, swelling can be hidden, which can not be seen by the eye and which are marked by a decrease in urinary excretion and a build-up of body weight. With such edemas, it is important to identify the original place of their formation and whether there are fluid accumulations in the body cavities with such edemas.
Local edema is a disturbance of the fluid balance ina certain zone, limited to any part of the body - the hand, the foot, the body, the face. Sometimes local edema should be distinguished from false edema, when pressure is not applied to the swelling area with a finger on the area of the swelling.
Causes of edema.
The fluid inside the vessels does not circulate by itselfitself, it is kept inside the cavity of the vessel by special proteins of the blood plasma - they form a special colloid-oncotic pressure. If the concentration of proteins inside the vessel and outside it is disturbed, the liquid begins to move from the vessels to the tissues to dilute the concentrations and level them. Then the tissues become edematous. Similar edema occurs with a decrease in the number of proteins in the blood plasma, especially if it is albumins. They have a large mass and bind proteins well. Such swollen conditions associated with proteins can occur when:
- Protein starvation, when in the child's foodvery little protein food. Then the expression "to swell with hunger" becomes justified. This occurs when starving - both complete and partial - protein.
- when the liver is broken due to the synthesis of proteins, especially albumin. This happens when the liver is damaged by toxic or inflammatory agents.
- if the kidneys are disturbed and the protein is lost in the urine.
- with protein loss through the inflamed intestinal wall.
The second important mechanism of edema formationis a change in the concentration in the plasma, and the body fluids of the sodium ion. Due to its concentrations, the osmotic pressure of the plasma is maintained at the proper level. Therefore, if in the intercellular space of the age the amount of sodium, then water rushes into the zone where sodium is much and is retained in the intercellular space - there is edema. This can occur with kidney disease.
In the formation of edema, the role ofpressure in the vessels, for example, in diseases of the heart. There is formation of stagnation in venous vessels, blood pressure decreases, this leads to the formation of blood stasis in the capillaries and the exit of the liquid part of the blood from the vessels into the tissues. Can also affect the pathology of the walls of blood vessels - if they are damaged, they have enlarged pores, then there is increased penetration through such vessels of liquid into tissues. This is the case with the development of inflammation.
Also control of body fluidshormone systems - especially important are the kidney and adrenal hormones. If the fluid around the cells or from the vessels is strongly lost, the mechanism of production of a special antidiuretic hormone is included, it reduces the formation and release of urine, thereby restraining water in the body. Parallel to it, aldosterone also works - it holds sodium in the body and with it water retention. If these hormones for any reason begin to be developed beyond measure, it leads to edema. It happens with some endocrine diseases and kidney damage.
What diseases can give edema?
First of all, when forming edema, it is necessarythink about the health of the kidneys and urinary system. Often, it is the urinary system in children of early and preschool age that gives marked and small swelling. Usually it is glomerulonephritis, severe pyelonephritis, congenital anomalies of kidney development. In parallel with edema, there are other symptoms - discharge of urine with blood, pain in the abdomen or lower back, problems with urination and the amount of urine.
In this case, there is swelling on the face - in the eyelid and cheek zone, maybe from barely noticeable to strong with the inability to open eyes. Puffiness is more pronounced in the morning, after sleeping.
Swelling can give some defeatintestine, in which there is a massive loss of protein by the walls of the intestine - celiac disease, ulcerative colitis and enteritis, polyposis of the intestine. Under such conditions, the body massively loses proteins, especially albumins.
Swelling can occur with cirrhosis of the liver orhepatitis, then swelling occurs in the abdominal region, with the accumulation of fluid inside the abdominal cavity. Edema can occur with heart failure and heart defects, they are characterized by swelling of the extremities and they are mainly formed in an upright position and in the evening.
A separate group is formed by edema of allergiccharacter, they arise due to the defeat of the vascular wall and a sharp increase in its permeability. Swelling can cover the face, neck, eyelids and lips, occurs very quickly and can be hazardous to health.
This is not all that we know about swelling. Therefore, we will continue the conversation next time.
April 9, 2013 #
Hello! my child has a swelling from the left side of the tongue, hands and feet. Neuropathologists diagnosed hemiatrophy. Then they said that this is not an accurate diagnosis. Has looked or seen on the Internet has found out a diagnosis-hemihypertrophy. too read that this asymmetry happens basically because of kidneys. have made US in a private clinic the doctor has told or said: At you a powerful inflammation-a pyelonephritis, a Polycystosis under. and the expansion of cups. Have handed over analyzes all is pure or clean, have shown to the nephrologist have told or said that all is pure or clean, any inflammation is not present! Now I do not know where to turn. Do not tell me? To the child of 5mes