Scarlet fever is an acute infection of streptococcal origin. belonging to the category of children.
Scarlet fever appears a complex of typical manifestations, the formation of complications and subsequent persistent immunity.
The main cause of scarlet fever is a special kindstreptococcus is beta-hemolytic (group A). It is a pathogenic microbe that lives in the nasopharynx or on the skin of adults, it can cause purulent processes - sore throats. erysipelas. and in children with primary infection gives the development of scarlet fever.
Most often, children from one to 10 years are ill, especially often in the autumn-winter period with a decrease in overall immunity. An infection is transmitted:
- airborne (coughing, sneezing, screaming)
- contact (dirty hands, common toys),
- food (microbes in milk, food, juices).
The infectivity of streptococcus is high, and during epidemics in organized groups up to 90% of children fall ill.
Babies up to a year rarely get scarlet fever due to the presence of maternal antibodies, gradually disappearing closer to the year. Sick children are contagious from the first to 21 days of illness.
Streptococcus group a, depending on age and localization, can cause:
when primary infection in children scarlet fever,
with repeated infection in children and adults with sore throat,
with infection of the skin - wound infection and erysipelas.
The period of incubation of scarlet fever lasts from 5 to 7 days, and therefore children who have been in contact with the patient and have not previously fallen ill are isolated for a week to quarantine.
The period of prodromal phenomena (pre-painful symptoms) can last up to three days and is manifested by whims, lethargy, malaise.
The very heat of scarlet fever manifests itself sharply with a rise in temperature to 38-40 degrees, the appearance of headaches, chills, malaise, refusal to eat. There may be nausea and vomiting.
After 10-12 hours on the skin of the body begins to appear a characteristic rash - it has the appearance of bright pink dots and spots on the reddened skin. The rash is most pronounced
- in the face,
- on the lateral surfaces of the body,
- in the area of skin folds in the groin,
- armpits and between the buttocks.
One of the typical signs of scarlet fever isthe presence of a sharp contrast between pale unaffected skin and bright red areas, and on the face a nasolabial triangle, free of rash, stands out against the flaming bright cheeks. Eyes usually shine because of a fever, and the face is a little edematous.
One of the permanent symptoms of scarlet fever isthe development of angina with a soft palate, a sharp increase in the tonsils, on the surface of which and in the lacuna formed a patina of white or yellow.
The lymph nodes - submandibular, upper cervical and bovine, react sharply to the angina, they increase and become painful when probed.
With scarlet fever, the rash begins to go away after 3-5days, after its disappearance there is no pigmentation. After 1-2 weeks on the skin, peeling is found. First, the skin of the neck and folds peel, and then all the surfaces. Especially typical is the peeling of the skin on the feet and palms, which starts from the nails, spreading on the fingers in the palm of your hand and up. On the palms and soles of the skin can be thin layers.
Typical and changes in language - in the beginning of the disease, heis coated with a white coating, gradually cleansing for 2-3 days, and from the fourth day of the disease acquires a red saturated color with a thickening of the papillae - "crimson tongue."
In severe scarlet fever there can be lesions of the nervous system with oppression or agitation, delirium and impaired consciousness, there may be heart lesions.
Due to the timely use of antibioticstoday there are rarely serious illnesses. But scarlet fever can be associated with infectious and allergic lesions of the kidneys, heart or joints from the second week of the disease. This usually happens in school-age children.
The basis of diagnosis - the clinical picturediseases with the indication of contact with a child, a patient with scarlet fever, or with an adult with a sore throat. Confirmation of the diagnosis is carried out by laboratory sowing streptococcus when taking a swab from the throat.
Differentiate scarlet fever from measles. angina, roseola and other childhood infections with a rash on the skin.
Scarlet fever is treated by pediatricians or infectious disease specialistsat home or in a serious condition in the hospital. The child is isolated from other children, contact with the sick child is quarantined for a week.
A child who is infected with scarlet fever needsseparate dishes, bedding and hygiene products. Bed rest is attributed to the entire time of taking antibiotics. A sparing diet is needed - a warm, mashed, non-irritating food, only warm, hot food is not allowed. It is necessary to drink a lot to reduce intoxication.
The main antibiotics for the treatment of scarlet fever are penicillins, at home suspensions or tablets are used.
With allergies to penicillins, erythromycin is used.
To reduce allergic reaction under the influence of streptococcus use antihistamines (suprastin, tavegil), you need to take calcium preparations, vitamins - especially ascorbic acid.
Angina with scarlet fever is treated with the use of solutionsfor rinsing, processed with sprays - bioparox, miramistin, hesskoral, tantum-verde. Apply medicinal herbs - a decoction of chamomile, tincture of calendula or sage.
The main complications include the development of infectious-allergic lesions of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), heart or joints. With the introduction of antibiotics in practice, complications are rare.
On average, recovery occurs within 2 weeks, the prognosis is favorable.