Edema of the feet is the accumulation in the tissues of an excessive amount of fluid, which changes their size and shape. It can be localized only in the lower extremities or be part of a common edema.
Causes of leg edema are associated with both pathologiesbodies and systems, as well as with factors that are not related to the general state of human health. The latter can be considered, for example, a single use of a significant amount of products containing salt that delays the withdrawal of liquid, or the use of drugs with steroids, leading to swelling of the tissues. Elimination of the provoking factor leads to the disappearance of leg edema. No treatment is required if the swelling of the lower limbs is caused by wearing unsuitable footwear.
However, in most cases, the appearance of swellingindicates the presence of an acute or chronic disease, and sometimes is the only symptom of developing pathology. For example, varicose disease at the initial stage is characterized by swelling, more often localized only on one leg. And the accompanying signs (pigmentation, ulceration of the skin) appear later, when the disease passes into the second and the third stage.
If it is timely to identify the causes of foot edema, you can exclude such states of body systems, in which operative intervention becomes inevitable.
Diseases causing swelling of the legs
Among pathologies that cause swelling of the legs, one of theLeading places are occupied by diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Sometimes, swelling caused by violations in the organs of the cardiovascular sphere, can persist for as long as 24 hours, but also during the day, accompanied by increased heart rate, pulmonary wheezing and shortness of breath. Localized edema mainly on the legs, but if there is no treatment for edema of the legs, and most importantly, the disease that caused its appearance, the edema gradually spreads upward.
Myocarditis, constrictive pericarditis, hypertension,An acute and chronic form of heart failure is usually accompanied by edema of the soft tissues of both legs. For the treatment of certain pathologies, surgical intervention (constrictive pericarditis) is required, to remove the symptomatology of others, sufficient medical therapy aimed at the underlying disease, but including decongestants.
Sometimes patients, seeking to use allopportunities for rapid recovery, apply folk foot edema treatment: cold compresses, baths with salts, natural diuretics. In this case, all procedures and self-prepared preparations must be coordinated with the doctor, so that the treatment does not lead, for example, to dehydration, if simultaneously with a diuretic prescribed by the doctor, juice or a decoction with the same properties prepared according to the grandmother's prescription is used.
Treatment of leg edema caused by diseaseskidney, is always associated with the organization of proper nutrition of patients: they all during the course of therapy showed a salt-free diet in combination with diuretics. Distinguish kidney edema caused by pathology in the structure of the kidneys or inflammatory processes in them, from the cardiac can be localized: edema of the legs accompanies, and often precedes the puffiness of the eyelids, in more severe cases - the face. Fluid retention is manifested by a decrease in the amount of urine and its darker, in comparison with the usual, color.
Development of nephrotic edema, to whichlead not only pathological conditions of the kidneys, but also other diseases, occurs gradually: the swelling of the face is replaced by swelling of the legs, lower back, abdomen, genitals. When you change the position of the patient edema can move. Serious complications of puffiness in kidney diseases requiring hospitalization may be hydrothorax (otherwise - thoracic edema) or ascites (abdominal edema). They show not only diuretics, but also puncture removal of fluid from the pleural or thoracic cavity, respectively.
Treatment of leg edema with liver disease is alwaysis aimed at eliminating the causes of the pathology that has arisen. If the edema of the shins is a consequence of cirrhosis of the liver, then the therapeutic effect is formed depending on the underlying cause that caused the pathology. Viral cirrhosis assumes the use of antiviral drugs, and alcoholic is an exception to beverages containing alcohol. The only way to find the right treatment for this disease is a doctor in a medical institution. With advanced forms of cirrhosis, a favorable prognosis is associated only with transplantation of the donor liver.
Such a violation in the thyroid gland asgipoterioz, can provoke edema of all parts of the body, not excluding the anterior surface of the shins. Eliminate the patient from the general puffiness, increase in language, inhibition, defects of mental activity, which also characterize this pathology, is impossible without treatment of the underlying disease, which is carried out by an endocrinologist taking into account the causes of its occurrence.
Diabetic nephropathy is another pathology,capable of leading to edema of the legs. It is reversible in the first stage (microalbuminuria stage) and does not have a favorable prognosis for progression. Treatment of puffiness of the feet is associated with maintaining a certain level of blood pressure with the help of potassium-eliminating diuretics. With the development of kidney failure, there is a need for kidney transplantation.
Swelling of the feet during pregnancy is an anxiousa sign that indicates a possible manifestation of gestosis - a pathology in which fluid accumulates in the tissues, blood pressure rises, a sudden increase in body weight, repeated vomiting, a protein appears in the urine. It is with the last sign that such frequent directions of pregnant women are connected to the analysis of urine. As prevention of gestosis, which is one of the common causes of death of pregnant women, it is required of the patients to follow the rules of nutrition and drink mild diuretics.
Infectious-inflammatory diseases of joints and tissues of legs, trauma
With leg injuries, joint diseases andtissues that are based on a viral or bacterial nature, often swelling of the lower extremities develops. The therapeutic effect - and sometimes the surgical intervention - depends on the type of injury (bruise, sprain, fracture) or the type of causative agent (antibacterial drugs are indicated for the treatment of erysipelas, antibiotics for rheumatism or infectious arthritis, etc.).
Conservative treatment of injuries may includethemselves as taking medications, and some manipulations that ease the patient's condition. To them it is possible to carry also the methods proven by the century-old practice, created by the people.
With injuries, the treatment of foot edema folkmeans focused on the restoration of blood circulation, the violation of which and causes swelling. To do this, use heating compounds, for example, a combination of turpentine and castor oil (1: 2). However, if more than a day has elapsed since the injury was received (a bruise, for example), then cold compresses will help to avoid severe traumatic puffiness.
Regardless of the reasons that triggeredthe appearance of puffiness, the treatment of leg edema in elderly patients has its own characteristics associated with the multiplicity of pathologies. But even those who are attentive to the recommendations of doctors regarding their chronic diseases, one of the most common types of edema is orthostatic edema. With it, the shape and volume of the lower third of the shins and the anterior region change, and contours of the lower extremities are often smoothed with the spread of edema to the rear of the foot.
Orthostatic edema may appear in humansyoung age, long retaining immobility. Rest in a horizontal position, like sufficient physical activity, leads to a rapid regress of such edema.
The appearance of puffiness on the lower limbs is an occasionfor the reference to physicians. Treatment of foot swelling with folk remedies has its merits, but before turning to lotions, broths and fritters, it is necessary to diagnose the causes of edema, because it is not an independent disease, but a symptom of a variety of pathologies.