Types of oedemas
Edema of the eyelids is a frequent phenomenon,which is accompanied by a sufficiently large number of all kinds of local and general diseases. And being only a symptom of this or that disease, he is sometimes able to deliver more unpleasant sensations than the disease itself.
The condition most often develops in people over the age of thirty, however, cases of edema in the child are not excluded.
The eyelids swell: the causes of the pathological process
In clinical practice,an abnormal increase in the amount of fluid contained in the subcutaneous tissue. In those cases when the person has swollen eyelids, the cause of the pathological process can be both physiological features of the structure and external stimuli.
Most often, the development of edema is promoted by the following factors:
- Increased skin extensibility in the eye area;
- Friable structure of subcutaneous fat;
- Well-developed system of blood supply of the eyelids;
- Increased ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue to accumulate fluid;
- Systemic pathologies (in particular heart disease, kidney disease, endocrine system, etc.);
- Bites and stings of insects;
- Impaired lymph current;
- Swelling of the cranial-cerebral fluid;
- Allergic reactions.
Edema of the upper eyelids may indicatethe presence of diseases of the kidneys, liver, heart, diseases affecting the connective tissue, as well as diseases of the eyelids and eye orbs themselves. In addition, edema of the upper eyelids often arise in connection with tumor processes (in particular, when affected by squamous cell carcinoma).
Edema of the eyelids is usually divided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory.
Inflammatory swelling is often a consequence:
- Inflammatory processes, which affect the eyelids themselves (blepharitis, barley, abscess, cellulitis, contact dermatitis, inflammation caused by an insect bite, etc.);
- Inflammatory processes that affect the conjunctiva of the eye (conjunctivitis in acute, purulent, membranous or pseudomembranous form);
- Inflammatory processes in the lacrimal sac (dacryocystitis in acute form, phlegmon, etc.);
- Inflammatory processes affecting the lacrimal gland;
- Inflammatory processes in the orbit of the eyes (pseudotumor, abscess, etc.);
- Inflammatory processes affecting the eyeball (iridocyclitis in acute form, endophthalmitis).
Since the eye sockets are closely connected and have a commona vascular system with paranasal sinuses that surround them from all sides with their walls, inflammation that occurs in the paranasal sinuses, often extends to the eyelids. In this case, they speak of a reactive edema of the eyelids. The main ways of spreading the pathological process are contact (hematogenous) or vascular (lymphogenous).
In addition, swelling of the eyelids can occur inthe result of thrombosis of the bone veins that connect the nose and paranasal sinuses with the eye sockets. The cause may be the development of acute or chronic (during an exacerbation) of the frontitis on the background of infectious diseases (influenza, acute respiratory viral infection, measles, scarlet fever, etc.).
To factors contributing to the spread ofinflammatory process on the eye socket and eyelids include the state of the organism's reactivity, the degree of pathogenicity of the microorganism-pathogen, and the nature of the manifestation of the infection.
Clinical manifestations of the edema of the inflammatory age are:
- Pronounced reddening of the skin;
- Local increase in temperature;
- Pain sensations arising from palpation;
- Increased size and tenderness of lymph nodes (this symptom is not always present);
- Increased tissue density (is a consequence of recurrent erysipelas).
Inflammatory swelling, as a rule, develops only on one eye.
Non-inflammatory eyelid edema is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Increased pallor of the skin of the eyelids (while the skin feels cool to the touch);
- Absence of tenderness in palpation;
- Development of edema simultaneously on the eyelids of both eyes;
- By varying the degree of edema in relation to the time of day (the swelling of the eyelids is most clearly visible in the mornings).
Concomitant symptoms are puffiness of the legs and ascites - a condition accompanied by the accumulation of a large amount of free fluid in the abdominal cavity.
A separate category is consideredallergic (or angioneurotic) swelling of the eyelids, which represent one of the manifestations of allergic conjunctivitis. Developing against the background of an allergy swelling is, as a rule, edema of the upper eyelid, and in most cases swelling is noted only on one eye. It is one of the varieties of the Quincke's edema, suddenly appears and also abruptly drops. In some cases it may be accompanied by pruritus of the skin and tear, but more often such subjective symptoms are still absent.
Usually the eyelids swell for reasons related to:
- Taking medications (for example, vitamin complexes, antibiotics or iodine-containing drugs);
- The use of cosmetics, in which as a component may be present one or another allergen;
- Bites and stings of insects.
There is also an opinion that predisposition to allergic edema can be caused by a hereditary factor.
The main symptoms of allergic edema of the eyelids are:
- The swelling of the eyelids (with a mildly allergic reaction insignificant, but in severe cases it can go so far that the eye gap completely "swims");
- Increased pallor of the edematous segment (rarely - cyanosis);
- Increase in intraocular pressure (if allergic edema spreads from the eyelids and to other parts of the eye).
Swelling of the eyelid in the child
There are several reasons for the development of edema in children,while the leading role is assigned to the genetic factor. As a rule, if someone from relatives has manifestations of this pathology, the chances of developing swelling of the eyelids in the child are also high.
Other causes of swelling of the eyelids include:
- Sleep disorders (in particular, insufficient sleep);
- Excessive consumption of salt with food;
- Diseases of internal organs (heart, kidneys, liver, various disorders, affecting the urinary system, etc.);
- Vegetosovascular dystonia;
- Decreased hemoglobin level;
- Metabolic disease;
- Increased intracranial pressure;
- A sedentary lifestyle, which is accompanied by a frequent sitting at the TV screen or computer monitor.
If after a normalization of a way of life and a diet atchild manifestations of puffiness do not disappear, it is necessary to have a comprehensive examination of his body in order to identify or, on the contrary, exclude the presence of more serious pathologies.
Treatment of edema of the eyelids, first of all, is aimed atelimination of the cause, but also implies proper skin care in the eyelids, normalization of the day and diet regime, avoidance of excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, the appointment of therapeutic procedures using electrical stimulation.