Swollen oral mucosa
What is the disease of the oral mucosa?
Diseases of the oral mucosa (stomatitis)are quite common problem. But their correct diagnosis is complicated by the fact that many diseases of the oral cavity occur with similar or even identical symptoms.
Stomatitis is a wide rangevarious diseases of the tongue, lips or palate. Accordingly, they are called glossitis, cheilitis and palatinitis. When the mucous membrane of the mouth thickens, mutters and bulges, they talk about a special kind of disease - leukoplakia.
Causes of diseases of the oral mucosa
Causes in which the mucous membrane of the mouthis stomatitis, gastrointestinal tract diseases, cardiovascular problems, allergies. a decrease in the body's immune forces, metabolic disorders and factors directly affecting the oral mucosa.
Stomatitis may occur due to eitherother dental reasons. For example, it is not uncommon for diseases to develop due to a person's non-compliance with the rules of hygiene and oral care, his role is played by the destroyed teeth and dental deposits. Violations of the technique of dental procedures can also cause stomatitis, because heterogeneous metals and chemicals in the treatment of teeth and prosthetics can create microtrauma.
Symptoms of diseases of the oral mucosa
Symptoms of diseases of the oral mucosa are directly dependent on the type of stomatitis.
Catarrhal stomatitis Among diseases of the oral mucosa isthe most common. It is caused by local factors, which include poor oral care, dental plaque and diseases, dysbiosis of the oral cavity and various pathological processes of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, colitis duodenitis). When catarrhal stomatitis causes helminthic invasion, the mucous membrane of the mouth swells, becomes covered with a white or yellow coating and becomes painful. The patient has increased salivation, the gums can bleed, an unpleasant smell appears from his mouth.
Ulcerative stomatitis - serious enough mucous diseaseshell of the oral cavity. It develops both independently and as a complication of catarrhal stomatitis. Often this disease occurs in people suffering from a stomach ulcer or a chronic form of enteritis. The risk group also includes people suffering from infectious and cardiovascular diseases, blood diseases and poisonings. Ulcerative stomatitis affects not only the upper layer of the oral mucosa, but also its entire thickness. The initial symptoms resemble catarrhal stomatitis, but after a while the characteristic signs of ulcerative mucosal lesions appear: body temperature rises to 37.5 degrees, the patient feels weakness, headache; lymph nodes can grow and ache. the intake of food is difficult because of strong pain.
Aftousstomatitis manifested with the appearance of the mucosathe shell of the mouth aft (sores). Aphids can be oval or round, red at the edges and grayish-yellow in the center. Aphthous stomatitis develops mainly because of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, allergic reactions. The causes may also be viral infections or rheumatism. In addition to the defeat of the mucous membrane of the mouth and its soreness, there is general malaise, the patient's body temperature rises and so on.
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Leukoplakia call chronic mucosal damagethe oral cavity, which is based on increased keratinization of the epithelium (hyperkeratosis). It affects mainly men after 40 years and is located on the mucous membrane of the cheek, in the corners of the mouth and on the lateral surfaces of the tongue. The causes of leukoplakia can be mechanical injuries of the mucosa: cuts by hooks from the denture, burns from hot or spicy food, and so on. This disease most often does not have severe symptoms, only occasionally the patient can feel an easy itch and burning sensation. But the danger of the disease lies in the fact that it can turn into malignant forms, so the patient needs consultation with an oncologist.
Treatment of diseases of the oral mucosa
The basis for the treatment of diseases of the mucosaoral cavity is the elimination of the causes that provoked them. The oral cavity is subject to sanation, the sharp edges of the teeth are treated, the denture is correctly adjusted. The patient is recommended to stop smoking and eating hot and sharp dishes.
The tooth stone is removed with stomatitis, and the teethare subject to treatment. It is necessary to rinse the mucous membrane of the mouth with antiseptic means (chlorhexidine or aminocaproic acid solutions). Apply also folk remedies: infusions and broths of chamomile and calendula. If signs of stomatitis persist after 5-10 days, most likely their cause was a disease of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract or helminthic invasion. Then the local treatment is combined with the general.