Why swelling of the knee joints

Tumors of the joints (fibroma, lipoma, angioma,chondroma, xanthoma, capsular osteoma) belong to rare diseases, they mainly come from the synovial and fibrous layers of the joint capsule, less often from other elements and are more often localized in the knee, elbow and hip joints. Benign tumors of the joints are asymptomatic for a long time, and only reaching a considerable size, cause changes in the shape of the joint, impaired function and pain.

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Occasionally, there is an effusion to the joint (xanthoma). Based on the synovial membrane, benign tumors of the joints for a long time keep in touch with it. Therefore, fibroma, lipomas, chondromas and even osteomas that arise as a result of metaplasia are located on the foot. Tumors that have a leg can be restrained and cause blockade of the joint. Recognition and especially differential diagnosis of joint tumors without histological examination is almost impossible, since the clinical and coronary manifestations of various tumors are very similar. Radiologic examination determines the increase in the volume of soft tissues and the presence of one or more formations in the joint.

Only lipoma and osteoma in density sharplydiffer from the surrounding muscles and are clearly revealed on the radiographs: lipoma - in the form of enlightenment, and capsular osteoma - the formation of bone density. Lipoma is a knobby lobed clearly defined formation, which in the section has the appearance of mature fat. Microscopically, the tumor is constructed by the type of conventional adipose tissue and differs from it in different sizes of lobules and fat cells. Sometimes in the thickness of the lipoma are visible areas of calcification. Hemangiomas can be capillary and cavernous. Capillary hemangioma has the appearance of an indistinctly delimited lobular formation of cyanotic color.

With cavernous hemangioma during operationa node of blue-purple color, sometimes limited to a capsule, is identified. In the cartilaginous and vascular tumors may contain calcareous inclusions. Sometimes at the level of the tumor, atrophy is seen from the pressure in the adjacent bones. However, in order to more accurately determine the size, location and nature of the tumor, additional (gas-contrast) X-ray methods are needed. If the life expectancy for benign tumors is favorable, then functional in case of untimely treatment can be bad. Treatment operative.