Cancer 4 stage swelling
Unique organ-saving operations. Prevention of the development of adhesions with modern materials. More 500 successful operations with kidney tumors. Fast recovery period relative to other modes of intervention
Among all oncological pathologies of organsurinary system kidney cancer ranks third, yielding first place only cancer BPH and bladder. The disease is more likely to affect people aged 50-65 years, and among men who are ill, there are twice as many as women. The emergence of the disease affects many factors: genetic, hormonal, chemical, etc.
Clinical manifestations are variable and diverse. It should be emphasized that the relationship between the size of malignant formation, the degree of tumor spread and the clinical picture is often absent. In the majority of patients, the disease at the initial stage is asymptomatic and is detected by accident during ultrasound examination. A classic triad of symptoms occurs in 15% of patients, although often only one or two symptoms are present.
- The most common is hematuria, and itis the only sign. Sudden, painless, short-term, it can stop on its own. It happens that the patient does not pay proper attention to this condition.
- Pain in the lumbar region is observed in 60%patients, manifested by discomfort and renal colic, which occurs as a result of blockage of a blood clot of the ureter. A characteristic feature: unlike other kidney pathologies, colic caused by a tumor occurs after hematuria, and not vice versa.
- Able to feel malignant education can onlyat its considerable size, which indicates the neglected form of the disease. However, this symptom may be absent, even if kidney cancer is diagnosed with grade 4.
- More than a quarter of patients by the time of settingThe diagnosis is metastasis, which is spread by hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways. In 40% of cases, they affect the lungs, in 35% - bones, less often the liver and brain. The clinical manifestations caused by metastases are very diverse and depend on the organ that is involved in the tumor process. With metastases to the lungs there is coughing and hemoptysis, with liver damage - fever and jaundice. Bone pain, compression of the spinal cord, pathological fractures are characteristic of bone metastasis. In 20% of patients paraneoplastic syndrome is observed, which characterizes kidney cancer of the 4th degree: weight loss, sweating, increased blood pressure. In addition, changes in blood are added: acceleration of ESR, anemia, increased calcium levels, functional disorders of the liver, etc.
As a result of the emergence of modern methodsToday, a tumor smaller than 2 cm can be detected, its structure, localization, histological structure of the tumor, etc. can be determined. The complex of compulsory research includes:
- Computer and magnetic resonance imaging
- Angiography, urography
- Radiography of chest organs, etc.
The main and most effective way is tosurgical intervention - nephrectomy. It is indicated in cases where the function of the remaining kidney is preserved. Patients with stage 4 and single metastases also performed operation that results in an improved condition of the patient, it eliminates severe symptoms, reduces toxicity, and also contributes to the favorable conditions for radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, with edema, cachexia, multiple metastases, the operation is contraindicated. Irradiation and drug therapy are included in complex treatment, but they are used only as an auxiliary.
The prognosis for kidney cancer of the 4th degree depends onthe histological form of malignant formation, the operation performed, the age of the patient, etc. However, the survival of patients with disseminated tumor within 5 years is only 14%, which is significantly less than in patients with a localized form of the disease. Survival of unoperated patients reaches 1-2 years, after a radical treatment 40-50% of patients will live for about 3 years and only 30% of patients are able to cross the 5-year boundary. Given the risk of relapse of cancer, patients are recommended to undergo regular preventive examination.