Kidney stones and swelling
Urolithiasis is a urological disease,which affects 3% of the country's population. The result of pathology are kidney stones. Symptoms in women and men are the same: renal colic, pain in the lower back, giving off in the perineum and genitals. According to statistics, men often suffer from urolithiasis, and stones are mainly formed in the right kidney.
The formation of stones occurs in the kidneypapillae, where microliths are formed, which in the absence of pathology should leave the urine. If urine becomes highly concentrated or its other chemical properties change, microliths begin to linger in the tubules of the renal papillae and grow, forming stones.
There are several types of stones:
- phosphate - consist of salts of phosphoric acid. They occur with an infection of the urinary tract, grow quite rapidly in alkaline urine;
- Cholesterol - are due to the high content of cholesterol. They are rare;
- oxalate - are formed from calcium oxalic acid in alkaline or acidic urine;
- urate salts are salts of uric acid. They are one of the most common species;
- cystine - consist of compounds of amino acids cystine.
Causes of kidney stones: a list
The causes of kidney stones are many. Very often they are formed under the influence of heat - when working in a room with a high temperature or when living in warm countries, when the body lacks water.
All the causes of the appearance in the kidney stones can be divided into internal and external.
- diseases of the genitourinary system, which contribute to the formation of protein compounds. It can be pyelonephritis, cystitis, prostatitis;
- fractures of bones, their acute and chronic diseases;
- pathologies leading to stagnation of urine - an irregular form of the kidney, enlargement or narrowing of the ureter and the like;
- diseases that result in a large amount of uric acid. For example, gout;
- diseases that lead to metabolic disorders - ulcers, chronic colitis;
- pathologies of the thyroid gland, increasing the calcium content in the blood;
- illness, because of which a person is confined to bed for a long time.
- eating foods containing large amounts of protein (meat), fats, spices;
- frequent acceptance of alcoholic beverages;
- drug abuse - anticoagulants, sulfanilamide preparations, aspirin;
- excess of vitamin B12 and C;
- lack of vitamins B and A;
- insufficient intake of water - salts from urine wash out badly and settle in the kidneys forming stones.
Symptoms of kidney stones
Approximately 15% of cases,The presence of stones in the kidneys is not manifested by any signs. In the remaining 85%, the symptoms are of different intensity and character. In many respects it depends on the number of stones and their sizes. The first signs of nephrolithiasis are aching lumbar pains that result from poor outflow of urine.
If there is a movement of the stone and it is stuck in the ureter or pelvis of the kidney, the pain syndrome acquires a sharp character and there are renal colic. They are accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain in the lower back, giving into the perineum;
- cloudy color of urine;
- body temperature increase up to 40С;
- painful process of urination;
- nausea and vomiting;
- in the urine is visible sand or small stones;
- may develop fever, anuria and oliguria.
Pain syndromes in renal colic are so strong that sometimes they can only be dulled by the introduction of narcotic drugs.
After the collapse of the colic peak, very often sand andKidney stones go out alone with urine. If in this case urine will be observed an admixture of pus, then in the urinary ways or kidneys there is an inflammatory process.
"I had kidney stones. What to do? "- this question is asked by a lot of people who are facing this disease. The only way out is to get rid of stones. This can be done conservatively or surgically.
To conservative methods of removing stones from the kidneysresorted in case they have a small size - up to 3 mm. To do this, the patient is prescribed a diet that prohibits the consumption of meat and other foods with a high protein content. Phosphate stones are excreted by the intake of acidic mineral waters. To alkalinize urine with urate stones, alkaline mineral water (essentuki) and a vegetable-milk diet are prescribed. From drugs, the nephrologist prescribes:
- drugs that dissolve kidney stones.
With renal colic it is necessary to relieve pain and inflammation. For this, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for 3-7 days. For example:
- antispasmodics - drotaverin, papaverine.
If these and similar drugs are allergic or there are other reasons for their inability to use, prescribe narcotic analgesics.
The dissolution of urate stones is carried out usingmedicinal preparations. All doses are selected individually, and the process itself is necessarily controlled. In the body of the patient is administered sodium bicarbonate or citrate mixtures, which make urine slightly alkaline. At the same time, its pH becomes higher than 7.0 and is held at this level for several weeks.
The destruction of kidney stones is alsoultrasound wave help. This method is called remote shock wave lithotripsy. It allows you to get rid of stones up to 2 cm. In most cases, 1 session is enough, a maximum of 2. In the process of the procedure, the stones break up into small pieces, causing a kidney colic.
- poor blood clotting;
- obstruction of the lower urinary tract;
- infection of the genitourinary system;
- obesity high degree.
Removal of kidney stones by surgery is performed by two methods:
- open type operation. The stone is extracted from the kidney by cutting its wall. The most traumatic, but reliable way;
- endoscopic operation. Through a puncture in the skin, special endoscopic equipment is introduced, which extracts the stone or crushes it with ultrasound, laser or mechanically.
- Hydronephrosis is the actual death of the kidney. If the stone that has left the organ will block the ureter for a long time, the renal pelvis will stretch, leading to the death of the kidney tissues.
- Pyelonephritis acute and chronic.
- Renal failure. The presence of kidney stones affects the increase in urinary pressure in the urinary tract. If this is added to the infection, the filtering apparatus of the kidneys will suffer.
As a result, they gradually stop coping with the task, and then completely stop the allocation of urine.
Preventing the appearance of kidney stones
To prevent the appearance of stones, several rules must be observed:
- every day to drink at least 1.5-2 liters of water;
- people with low urine acidity need to increase the amount of acidic foods in their diet;
- food should be varied;
- reduce the consumption of fatty, smoked and spicy;
- do not overcool;
- to refuse from bad habits;
- timely treatment of diseases of the genitourinary system. After 45 years it is desirable to be examined every year from a specialist.
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