Cardiac edema forecast
What is heart failure?
Heart failure Is a series of disorders, the basis of which lieslow contractility of the heart muscle. There is a misconception that heart failure is a heart disease, but it is not. Heart failure is a condition of the body in which the contractility of the cardiac muscle (myocardium) becomes weak, as a result, the heart can not fully provide the body with the right amount of blood.
Very often heart failure sufferpeople with coronary heart disease and hypertension, and heart failure complicates many diseases of the cardiovascular system. Heart failure significantly reduces the quality of life, and sometimes causes death.
Given the nature and course of the disease,Heart failure is divided into acute and chronic. The disease manifests itself by slowing the rate of total blood flow, the amount of blood ejected by the heart becomes less, the pressure in the cardiac chambers increases. Excessive volume of blood, which the heart could not cope with. begins to accumulate in conditionally called "depot" - the veins of the legs and abdominal cavity.
The first symptoms of heart failure are weakness and fatigue.
Since the heart can not cope with everythingthe volume of circulating blood, the excess fluid from the bloodstream begins to accumulate in different organs and tissues of the body, usually in the feet, calves, thighs, abdomen and liver.
Because of the increase in pressure and the accumulation of liquid inlungs there is a violation of breathing. In a normal state, oxygen passes unimpeded from the lung tissue rich in capillaries to the general blood stream, but with fluid accumulation in the lungs, which occurs in heart failure, oxygen does not fully pass into the capillaries. Breathing increases due to low concentration of oxygen in the blood. Very often the patient wakes up in the middle of the night from suffocation attacks.
As an example, we can considerAmerican President Roosevelt, who suffered from heart failure. For a very long time he could not sleep lying, and he was sleeping in a chair because of breathing problems.
Exiting fluid from the bloodstream into the tissue andthe organs are able to stimulate not only the problems of breathing and sleep disorders. A person quickly gaining weight due to swelling of soft tissues in the area of the feet, shin, thighs, and sometimes in the abdomen. When you press your finger, you can clearly feel edema.
In very severe cases, fluid accumulatesinside the abdominal cavity. A dangerous condition begins - ascites. Ascites are a complication in advanced heart failure. In those cases where a certain amount of fluid from the bloodstream leaves the lungs, a condition called "pulmonary edema" begins. Often, pulmonary edema occurs in a chronically ongoing heart failure, accompanied by a pink, blood-soaked sputum when coughing.
Insufficient blood supply has a negative effecton all organs and systems of the human body. The effect on the central nervous system in elderly people is affected by a decrease in mental activity.
Left side or right?
Symptoms of heart failure depend onwhich side of the heart is involved in the process. The left atrium (the upper chamber of the heart) takes oxygen-enriched blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle (lower chamber), which pumps this blood into other organs. If the left side of the heart is not able to fully promote the blood, it is thrown back into the pulmonary vessels, and excess fluid seeps through the capillaries into the alveoli, causing difficulty in breathing. Another symptom of left-sided heart failure is weakness and excessive mucus secretion (sometimes even with a trace of blood).
Right-hand failure occurs ifit is difficult to drain blood from the right atrium and right ventricle, this happens when the heart valve works poorly. As a result, the pressure increases and fluid accumulates in the veins, terminating in the right chambers of the heart - the veins of the liver and legs. The liver increases in volume, pains disturb, legs strongly swell up. With right-hand insufficiency, there is a phenomenon such as nocturia - increased nighttime urination, exceeding daytime.
With congestive heart failure, the kidneys do notcan absorb large volumes of fluid, as a result of which kidney failure is formed. Salt, which is normally excreted by the kidneys along with water, is retained in the body, thereby increasing puffiness. When eliminating the main cause - heart failure - renal failure disappears.
There are so many reasons for the development of heart failure. One of the main ones is ischemic heart disease and insufficiency of the blood supply to the heart muscle.
In turn, ischemia is caused by blockageheart vessels with fat-like substances. Another cause of heart failure may be a heart attack, as some part of the heart tissue dies and cicatrizes.
The next reason for the development of cardiacinsufficiency - arterial hypertension. To move the blood through the spasmodic vessels, a lot of strength is needed, as a result, the heart, namely, the left ventricle, increases in size. Further, weakness of the heart muscle or heart failure develops.
One of the causes that affect the development of cardiacinsufficiency, is a cardiac arrhythmia (irregular contractions). If the number of strokes is more than 140 per minute, it is considered dangerous and contributes to the development of the disease, as the processes of filling and ejection of blood by the heart are violated.
In the case when there are changes from the sidevalves of the heart, there are violations of filling the heart with blood, and this also contributes to the development of heart failure. Often, the problem is caused by an internal infectious process (endocarditis) or rheumatic disease.
Inflammation of the heart muscle due to infections, alcohol or toxic damage also leads to the development of heart failure.
However, in all cases, it is not possible to establish exactly the cause that caused heart failure. A similar condition is called idiopathic heart failure.
Depending on the manifestations of the disease at different stages, this classification is established:
Class 1: there are no restrictions in physical activity and no influence on the quality of life.
Class 2: small restrictions of physical activity, lack of inconvenience during rest.
Class 3: a significant decrease in working capacity, the symptoms do not disturb during rest.
Class 4: loss of working capacity in whole or in part, all the symptoms of heart failure and chest pain, disturbing even during the time of recuperation.
Approximately 50% of patients with a diagnosis of "cardiacdeficiency "live with this disease for more than five years. Although it is necessary to make forecasts individually for each patient, taking into account the severity of the disease, the concomitant diseases, age, the effectiveness of therapy, lifestyle and many other factors. In the treatment of this disease, the following goals are pursued: improving the performance of the left ventricle of the heart, improving the quality of life and restoring the patient's ability to work. Treatment in the early stages brings the best result, while the life expectancy is significantly improved.