How to relieve swelling in the burn
Thermal burns. The occurrence of thermal burns occurs when the skin is exposed to high temperatures (flame, hot metal, boiling water, hot steam). Depending on the severity and depth of thermal damage, 4 degrees of burns are identified. Burns of the I degree are manifested in the form of redness and swelling of the skin. Second-degree burns are characterized by the formation of blisters. With third-degree burns, the skin becomes dead. Burns of the fourth degree are accompanied by the necrosis of deep tissues outside the skin, including sometimes bones. Burns I and II degree are considered superficial, the others - deep. The severity of the burn depends on the area and depth of the lesion. The third and fourth degree burns are the most dangerous, but superficial thermal burns can be fatal if they capture more than 1/3 of the entire surface of the body.
With burns of the 1st degree, redness appears immediatelyand swelling of the skin at the burn site. The patient complains of burning and pain, intensifying during a touch. The skin temperature at the burn site is increased. These phenomena in a decreasing degree hold for 2-3 days and disappear. Itch appears on the burn site and the epidermis begins to slough off - the surface layer of the skin. Gradually, the place of the former burn becomes normal.
If burns of I degree burn surface and skinaround it are dirty, it is washed with a napkin or a sterile bandage with warm soapy water, wiped with a 0.5% solution of ammonia, then drained with a sterile cloth, wiped with 70- or 40-degree alcohol, and superimposed on the burn area with a dry sterile dressing or a better alcoholic bandage the bandage. If the burn and the skin around it are not contaminated, it is enough to rub the area of the burn with alcohol and apply a dry sterile or alcohol bandage.
In patients with second-degree burns in placeThermal burns include redness, swelling and blisters. Bubbles are formed by a tissue fluid that swells out of the dilated vessels of the skin. The contents of the blisters soon turn into a jelly-like mass. Bubble skin and tissue fluid protect underlying tissues from damage and infections, so bubbles should never be opened.
As a rule, victims with a burn of grade IIcomplain of severe pain. To combat the pain, the burnt surface is covered with gauze sterile napkins or bandages, which are abundantly moistened with 1% solution of novocaine. In its absence, it is good to apply cold in the form of a bubble with ice on a burnt surface covered with sterile napkins.
The skin around the burnt surface must be treated with gauze wipes with a 0.5% solution of ammonia. You can use a warm soap solution for the same purpose.
Using sterile cotton or gauze ballsBurned surface with bubbles is treated with 70- or 40-degree alcohol and drained with sterile gauze napkins. After this, a bandage is applied with streptomycin, sintomycin or sulphidine emulsions, which are sold at the pharmacy. The anti-burn oil-balsamic emulsion of AVVishnevsky works well, consisting of birch tar (1 g), anesthesin and xeroform (3 g each) and castor oil (100 g). Such bandages do not cause pain during the change, they do not break the healing of the burn surface, ensuring its protection against microbial infection. In the absence of emulsions, the treated burn surface can be sprinkled with white streptocid powder at a rate of 0.1-0.2 g per 15-20 cm of burn area. With less success, you can use a bandage of 3-4 layers of gauze, moistened with a 3% solution of potassium permanganate (pale violet shade of the solution), which are covered with several layers of dry gauze. On top put a layer of cotton or lignin. Bandages are bandaged, easily pressing on tissues. Bandages should not be shifted, and with a successful course of the disease they are not removed 7-9 days. For such a period, the burn surface is epithelialized (heals). Burns on limbs require immobilization (temporary immobilization) in a position convenient for the affected person. To avoid the development of adverse effects of immobilization, every 2-3 days, temporarily stop immobilization and make movements in the joints.
With a smooth course of the disease in place of the formerburns of II or III degree there is a pigmentation which gradually disappears, not leaving a cicatrix. With common surface thermal burns on the head, hands, feet, it is advisable to send the injured person to a hospital (hospital, hospital).
With deep thermal burns of III and IV degreefirst aid measures should be limited to the imposition of a dry sterile bandage, the appointment of anesthetics and the urgent transportation of the victim to the nearest surgical hospital. With extensive burns, carefully remove the clothing from the victim or cut it, wrap the area of the thermal burn with a clean sheet, wrap the patient with a blanket and send it to the hospital.
Given that severe pain is one of the mostthe main symptoms of thermal burns of any degree, to reduce the suffering of the patient and to prevent shock, prescribe painkillers, available in the home medicine chest. These include analgin, baralps, amidopyrine and analgin. Analgesic effect has alcoholic beverages, so in cases of severe pain, it is possible to give the affected person (not children only) 100-150 g of vodka or cognac or 200 g of wine. When the victim is excited, sedatives (soothing) can be given orally: valerian drops, Bechterew medicine, seduxen, elenium, and the like. When pain occurs in the heart area, mainly in the elderly, 15-20 drops of Corvalolum, Valocordinum, Cordiamine should be prescribed, and if they are ineffective after 10-15 minutes, place 1 tablet of Validol or Nitroglycerin under the tongue.
First aid in the inflammation of clothing. On fire or in other everyday situations, people should immediately pour a burning person with cold water, and if there is no water at hand, throw something soft (blanket, coat, blanket and tla!). If no one is around and the victim has nothing to throw on himself, he should not run, because with this the flame will swell. He must rush to the ground (or floor) and roll on it, extinguishing the flame in this way. As soon as the fire is extinguished, we must carefully cut the dress and remove it from the victim. The parts of clothing adhering to the body should in no case be ripped off - they must be left in place and only cut around.
When scalding with boiling water or steam, you needAs soon as possible, pour the victim cold water to cool clothes that have absorbed the boiling water. Then calm the victim, give him hot sweet tea, a glass of wine or vodka, and if there are burns, provide first aid, as mentioned above.
Solar burns can be without significanttotal body overheating. Burns appear a few hours after excessive exposure to the sun. In addition to local phenomena (widespread reddening, sometimes with blisters), in severe cases fever is observed (fever to 38-39 ° C), general lethargy, headache, muscle pain, rapid pulse, sometimes nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are noted. In severe cases, loss of consciousness is possible. The duration of the overall reaction is 1-2 days. Such common phenomena are associated with the ingestion of toxic products in the blood burned.
Treatment consists of lubricating the skin with petroleum jelly ormoisturizing nourishing cream, and when bubbles appear, compresses from 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate are recommended. In severe and severe cases of sunburn, you should consult a doctor.
As prevention of sunburn, it is importantstrictly follow the recommendations of doctors for sunbathing, perform the prescribed tanning regimens, do not exceed the length of sun exposure over individual biodosomes, beware of direct sunlight to persons with increased sensitivity to insolation.
Chemical burns. When acids, alkalis, heavy metals salts and phosphorus get on the skin, chemical burns are formed. The damage they cause in tissues is the same as with thermal burns. The severity of the process depends on the depth of tissue damage and the prevalence of burns on the surface.
Chemical burns vary in degrees: at grade I reddening of the skin and its edema, at the 2nd degree - blisters, at the third degree - necrosis of the skin and deeper tissues.
Burns with acids have a rapid surfaceimpact, since, connecting with the tissue protein, form a dense scab that prevents further penetration of the chemical agent into the tissue. By the color of the scab, in some cases it can be determined which acid caused the burn. So, with a nitric acid burn, the scab is yellow, burned with sulfuric acid - black, with acetic acid burned - with white. Due to the violation of nerve endings, the scab is insensitive. Alkalis do not roll proteins, dissolve fats and penetrate deeper into tissues, causing deeper lesions.
First aid for chemical burns with acids andalkalis is to remove and neutralize the chemical. Immediately after a burn, you should wash the affected area with water for a long time. After this, it is necessary to neutralize the chemical agent that has got on the skin. The acids are neutralized with a 2% solution of bicarbonate soda (1 teaspoon of baking soda for 1 liter of water), alkali - 2% solution of acid (boric, acetic, hydrochloric), abundantly washing the burn sites. After reliable neutralization, further measures of first aid and treatment are carried out both with thermal burns.
With a safe flow of scab after a burnacid disappears after 12-15 days, often without leaving even a scar. After healing of the wound resulting from burns with alkali, a tightening scar often remains. To prevent the formation of such scars and to treat them, early application of paraffin applications, mud therapy, other physiotherapeutic thermal procedures, which are possible not only in the polyclinic, but also at home, is recommended.
With chemical eye burns, it is necessary to immediatelyrinse with a weak solution of soda (1/4 tsp of drinking soda per 1 glass of water) with a cotton ball moistened with this liquid. Vat, moistened in a soda solution, it is necessary to change every 3-5 minutes. Then the eye is slightly bandaged and the victim is immediately sent to the hospital.
The phosphorus burn is a combined -chemical and thermal. When phosphorus hits the skin, it is necessary to extinguish the phosphorus, since it can burn for a long time on clothing and body. To provide first aid, you must immediately throw off burning clothing, and if this is not possible, throw a blanket, clothes, blanket, etc., on a burning person. and keep them on it for 15-20 minutes, since the phosphorus can re-ignite. It is necessary to wash the place of damage abundantly with running water or, if possible, immerse it in a tank with water or a bath. Do not use a jet of water under high pressure, since the remaining phosphorus nippers on the skin and the phosphoric acid formed when phosphorus is combined with water can scatter to the sides and get on the skin of those around them. The pieces of the remaining phosphorus are removed from the surface of the body, with tweezers. After thorough washing with water, it is necessary to moisten the affected surface with a weak alkaline solution for neutralizing the phosphoric acids formed. Then apply a lotion with a 2-5% solution of copper sulfate or a 5% solution of potassium permanganate (1/2 tsp manganese per 1/2 liter of water). Further treatment is the same as with chemical burns.