Sinusitis swelling of the cheeks
The nose plays a big role in a person's life. It performs respiratory, tear, olfactory and protective functions. Inside it there are nasal cavities - paranasal sinuses, which are the beginning of the human respiratory tract. They can be compared to small, air-filled caves, located in the bones of the skull and connected directly to the nasal cavity.
The accessory sinuses are divided into:
- Lattice labyrinth
- The frontal
- The main
The maxillary sinuses. or, as they are called, gaymorovyh, people have two: left and right. Proceeding from this, such a disease as sinusitis (sinusitis) occurs due to the penetration of the nasal cavity into these sinuses of various kinds of infections, viruses or bacteria that cause inflammation.
As a result of the inflammatory process onthe mucous membrane of the maxillary cavity appears edema that spreads from the nose and, as a result, covers the space between it and the maxillary sinus. It receives less oxygen, which leads to an increase in pressure, leading to severe pain in the patient. At the same time, mucus production continues, which, together with a violation of its outflow, leads to unfavorable congestion in the maxillary sinus. Thus, the secretion of mucus begins to take an inflammatory character.
Types and symptoms of the disease
- Acute. It begins suddenly, as a complication after acute rhinitis, influenza, scarlet fever, measles (other infections) or dental diseases against the background of a general decrease in immunity. The main symptoms: chills, poor health, fever, headache, giving off in the root of the teeth or forehead, nasal congestion and discharge from it. When you touch the inflamed sinus, painful sensations also appear. Pain in this form of sinusitis usually increases with the tilt of the head, sneezing or coughing. In case the inflammatory process affects the periosteum, the patient will have swelling of the lower or upper eyelid, or swelling of the cheek, also characterizing the acute sinusitis + symptoms described above.
- Chronic. It is characterized by: general malaise, weakness, fatigue, headache (mostly in the evenings) and nasal congestion. Chronic inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is a consequence of the acute course of the disease, against a background of some pathology that prevents the normal outflow of mucus. For example, hypertrophy of nasal concha, curvature of the septum, thickening of the nasal mucosa, etc. Symptoms are similar to acute sinusitis.
- Recurrent (periodic) sinusitis. Inflammation occurs two or more times during the year.
- Depending on the source of infection. Sinusitis can be: rhinogenic, hematogenous, traumatic, allergic, odontogenic, etc.
Genyantritis develops in humans in the presence of many interrelated causes, the main of which are:
- Weak immunity, which is disturbed by chronic diseases, allergies, parasitosis
- Curvature of the nasal septum, an increase in nasal concha, adenoids
- The presence of bacteria - staphylococci innasopharynx in humans. As a rule, they can for a long time not cause any harm to health. But with unfavorable factors, for example a cold, they begin to show activity.
Started respiratory diseases, as well as their untimely detection and wrong treatment
Clinical manifestations and varieties of acute inflammation
In general, acute sinusitis is accompanied by the following symptoms in the patient:
- Unpleasant sensations in the area of the nose and around it, which gradually intensify. Pain has the property to increase by evening. After a while, the whole head begins to ache.
- Difficulty in breathing due to nasal congestion. The voice becomes "nasal".
- In acute stage of the disease, the body temperature rises above 38 degrees. Sometimes this symptom occurs in chronic sinusitis.
- Coryza with purulent, yellow, green or transparent secretions. Provided that the nose is severely blocked, this symptom may not be present.
- General malaise of the patient: fatigue, weakness, lack of appetite, insomnia
In medical practice, acute sinusitis is divided intotwo main types: purulent and catarrhal. The main sign of the first type of disease is the accumulation of pus in the sinuses of the nose, with their subsequent discharge to the outside. Acute catarrhal sinusitis is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the sinus of the nose and the formation of serous (liquid, transparent) contents that also expire outward. Pathological process can capture as one maxillary sinus (then put, for example, such a diagnosis: "acute left-sided sinusitis"), and two at once (bilateral acute sinusitis).
This kind of genyantritis is, perhaps, the mostserious and dangerous in view of the possible health consequences. Its main symptoms are a sharp increase in body temperature to 39 degrees, severe headaches, a feeling of squeezing the eyes, pain and swelling in the forehead, cheeks, etc. At the same time, purulent contents with an unpleasant odor are released from the nose of the patient. The final diagnosis can be made only by a doctor! To do this, he will appoint an X-ray study of the maxillary cavities and conduct a visual examination of the patient.
Pus accumulated in the maxillary sinus isAn excellent environment for the development of viruses and bacteria. The products of their vital activity - toxins - enter the patient's blood and cause all of the above symptoms.
After a while, the pus fills the entire sinus and without timely treatment can break out into the surrounding nasal cavity of the structure.
The consequences of such a process will be: swelling of the eyelids, their redness, bulging of the eyeball. The most terrible result of sinusitis is the destruction of pus of the walls of the maxillary sinus and its penetration into bone tissue. The result is an inflammatory process in the bones of the upper jaw (osteomyelitis). Other severe consequences of this disease are: meningitis, abscess of the eyelids and the brain, phlegmon of the orbit, etc.
The main rule that must be observedthose who are diagnosed as acute purulent maxillary sinusitis should be treated only by a doctor! Very often people try to recover themselves, but, as practice shows, nothing good comes of it. Purulent sinusitis in rare cases passes by itself.
Initially, the treatment is directed to eliminate edema from the mucous membrane of the maxillary cavity (to resume normal outflow of mucus and pus).
The very first remedy is vasoconstrictorpreparations: "Sanorin", "Naphtizin", "Tizin", "Nazol", "Galazolin", "Toonos", etc. It is very important to properly dig them. The patient, lying on his side, should introduce drops into that half of the nose, which corresponds to the side of the body on which he lies. In this case, they will fall on the side wall of the nasal cavity. The patient should remain in this position for at least 5 minutes. After this, the procedure must be repeated on the other side of the nose. After 5 minutes, blow your nose. Then, after 10-15 minutes, you can do irrigation of nasal cavities with the help of sprays: Ingalipt, Bioparox or Cameton.
After using vasoconstrictive drugsBury also antibacterial, analgesic or anti-inflammatory drugs. As for the first, in the treatment of sinusitis, doctors apply them depending on the stage, the severity of the disease and individual tolerability. The most commonly prescribed are Sumamed, Rovamycin, Augmentin, Sporidex, Ampiox, Cefazolin, etc. In parallel with antibiotics, antihistamines may be prescribed to reduce the swelling of the nasal mucosa: Suprastin, Diazolin, Tavegil, etc. To dilute pus, apply ACTS-long (1 tablet once a day).
Very effective in the treatment of sinusitisthe washing of the nasal cavity with an antiseptic solution conducted by a doctor in a hospital environment has been recognized. Also, physicians prescribe physiotherapy procedures: UHF on the paranasal sinuses, ultraviolet irradiation of the nasal cavity,
Often patients ask: "Is it worth piercing the maxillary sinus?" This is a very difficult question. In every second case, patients refuse puncture, even if the sinusitis is expressed by very severe pains and ailments. They explain this by the fact that after the puncture the disease becomes chronic and the puncture will have to be done regularly. But this is an ungrounded opinion. On the contrary, this procedure is very effective, albeit quite unpleasant. After the puncture in the maxillary sinus, catheters are inserted carefully and through them every day the cavities are washed.
Puncture greatly alleviates the conditionpatient. That's why you should not abandon the procedure just because of fear. Puncture is carried out permanently under the constant supervision of a doctor. After the procedure, a complete cure of a person from sinusitis occurs.
Mostly occurs against the background of a transferred flu or ARVI. Symptoms of catarrhal sinusitis are less pronounced than in purulent disease:
- Slightly expressed malaise
- Painful sensations in the region of the maxillary sinus
- Strengthening of lacrimation
- Nasal congestion
- Strong discharge from the nose when lying on a healthy half of it
- In rare cases - edema of the lower eyelid and pain when feeling the external wall of the maxillary sinus
If the patient starts the disease, begins to treat it untimely or incorrectly, then it is possible to degenerate catarrhal sinus in purulent, with the following complications:
- Thrombosis, sinus phlebitis
- Endophthalmitis, i.e. inflammation of the internal structure of the eyeball
- Abscess of the brain
- Collateral edema of orbit
- Phlegmon of the orbit
All this can be avoided if you contact a specialist for treatment in time.
The main goal of treatment of catarrhal sinusitisis the removal of edema and excretion of accumulated mucus from the maxillary sinus. In the acute phase of the disease prescribe vasoconstrictive nasal drops ("Sanorin", "Galazolin", "Naphthyzin", etc.), antipyretic and sulfanilamide preparations (Biseptol, Sulfadimetoksin, Etazol, etc.). In addition, physicians prescribe physiotherapy: ultraviolet irradiation of the affected sinus sinus or UHF currents.
In some cases, conservative treatment maynot give a result. Then spend a puncture of the maxillary sinus. Puncture is performed under local anesthesia with a needle that is inserted into the lower nasal passageway. Specially designed syringe doctor sucks all the contents of the sinus, then - it rinses it with a disinfectant solution and medical preparations.
Traditional medicine has also accumulated many useful recipes for the treatment of sinusitis.
For example, if you are suffering from acute bilateral sinusitis - treatment can be carried out by such mixtures:
- Take 1 tsp. honey, butter and laundry soap. All mixed and melted in a water bath. Add in the mixture of 0.5 tsp. alcohol and juice of onions. Prepare in advance the wicks of gauze, which need to be moistened in this liquid and inserted into each nasal passage for 10-30 minutes. This mixture irritates the nasal mucosa and promotes better escape of the pathological contents of the sinuses to the outside. Apply for the first 5 days of the disease (with yellow-green, dense secretions). After proceeding to use the recipes given below under paragraphs 2 and 3.
- Mix for 1 tsp. egg white, honey and aloe juice with 1.5 tsp. juice of onion. This solution should be stored in the refrigerator for 4 days. Apply similarly to item 1, preheat before this.
- Mix in equal parts juices of carrots, aloe, beets and onions with the same amount of honey. Keep in the refrigerator for no more than 5 days. Warm up before use.
- Ointment Vishnevsky mixed in equal parts with 1ch.L. juice cyclamen. calanchoe, aloe, onion and 1 tbsp. l. honey. Insert into the nose for 20-30 minutes 2 times a day. Apply at least 20 days.
In order to reduce the formation of serous and purulent contents in the maxillary cavities, you can ingest ¾ cup of infusions of St. John's wort or yarrow in a hot form.
To do this, brew 1 tbsp. a spoonful of any herbs (dry) with one glass of boiling water. Infuse for 15-20 minutes, then filter. This infusion is especially useful in purulent or serous discharge from the nose.