Edema mechanisms and types
Edema - one of the most frequent forms of hyperhydration.
Edema - a typical form of disturbance of the body's water balance, characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular space and / or body cavities.
Edible fluid can have a different composition and consistency. It can be in the form:
• Transudate - poor protein (less than 2%) of the liquid.
• Exudate - rich in protein (more than 3%, sometimes up to 7-8%) of a liquid, often containing uniform elements of blood.
• Slime. a mixture of water and colloidsIntermediate tissue containing hyaluronic and chondroitinic acid. This kind of edema is called mucous, or myxedema. Myxedema develops with a deficiency in the body of iodine-containing hormones of the thyroid gland.
Swelling classifies depending on their location, prevalence, rate of development and the main pathogenetic factor of edema development.
• Depending on the location of the edema distinguish anasarca and dropsy.
- Anasarca - edema of the subcutaneous tissue.
- Dropsy - edema of the body cavity (congestion of the transudate in it).
- Ascites - accumulation of excess of the transudate in the abdominal cavity.
- Hydrotorax - accumulation of transudate in the thoracic cavity.
- Hydropericardium - excess fluid in the cavity of the pericardial sac.
- Gidrotsele - accumulation of transudate between the leaves of the serous shell of the testicle.
- Hydrocephalus - excess fluid in the ventricles of the brain (internal hydrocephalus of the brain) and / or between the brain and skull - in the subarachnoid or subdural space (external edema of the brain).
• Depending on the prevalence, local and common edema.
- Local (eg, in tissue or organ at the site of inflammation or allergic reaction).
- General - accumulation of excess fluid in all organs and tissues (eg hypoproteinemic edema in liver failure or nephrotic syndrome).
• Depending on the rate of development of edema, they speak of lightning and acute development or chronic edema.
- Lightning swelling develops within a few seconds after exposure (eg, after an insect or snake bite).
- Acute edema usually develops within an hour after the action of the causative factor (eg, pulmonary edema in acute myocardial infarction).
- Chronic edema is formed within a few days or weeks (eg, nephrotic, edema in fasting).
• Depending on the main pathogenetic factor, hydrodynamic, lymphogenic, oncotic, osmotic and membranogenic edema.