Edema mechanisms and types

Edema - one of the most frequent forms of hyperhydration.

Edema - a typical form of disturbance of the body's water balance, characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular space and / or body cavities.

Edible fluid can have a different composition and consistency. It can be in the form:
Transudate - poor protein (less than 2%) of the liquid.
Exudate - rich in protein (more than 3%, sometimes up to 7-8%) of a liquid, often containing uniform elements of blood.
Slime. a mixture of water and colloidsIntermediate tissue containing hyaluronic and chondroitinic acid. This kind of edema is called mucous, or myxedema. Myxedema develops with a deficiency in the body of iodine-containing hormones of the thyroid gland.

Swelling classifies depending on their location, prevalence, rate of development and the main pathogenetic factor of edema development.

Depending on the location of the edema distinguish anasarca and dropsy.
- Anasarca - edema of the subcutaneous tissue.
- Dropsy - edema of the body cavity (congestion of the transudate in it).
- Ascites - accumulation of excess of the transudate in the abdominal cavity.
- Hydrotorax - accumulation of transudate in the thoracic cavity.
- Hydropericardium - excess fluid in the cavity of the pericardial sac.
- Gidrotsele - accumulation of transudate between the leaves of the serous shell of the testicle.
- Hydrocephalus - excess fluid in the ventricles of the brain (internal hydrocephalus of the brain) and / or between the brain and skull - in the subarachnoid or subdural space (external edema of the brain).

• Depending on the prevalence, local and common edema.
- Local (eg, in tissue or organ at the site of inflammation or allergic reaction).
- General - accumulation of excess fluid in all organs and tissues (eg hypoproteinemic edema in liver failure or nephrotic syndrome).

• Depending on the rate of development of edema, they speak of lightning and acute development or chronic edema.
- Lightning swelling develops within a few seconds after exposure (eg, after an insect or snake bite).
- Acute edema usually develops within an hour after the action of the causative factor (eg, pulmonary edema in acute myocardial infarction).
- Chronic edema is formed within a few days or weeks (eg, nephrotic, edema in fasting).

• Depending on the main pathogenetic factor, hydrodynamic, lymphogenic, oncotic, osmotic and membranogenic edema.