When swelling occurs in newborns

Cerebral edema in newborns Is a pathology in which an excessiveaccumulation of fluid in the intercellular space and brain cells. As a result of this pathology, the brain volume increases and intracranial pressure rises (intracranial hypertension, which is the cause of death of brain cells and circulatory disorders). With a sharp increase in intracranial pressure, the patient needs urgent medical attention. If untimely, it can be fatal.

Causes of cerebral edema

The main reason for cerebral edema in newborns is birth trauma. There are also the following reasons that cause brain pathology:

  1. Getting craniocerebral injury, which leads to brain damage by mechanical means. As a complication in the brain can fall fragments of the skull. The onset of swelling interferes with the outflow of fluid from the brain.
  2. Infectious diseases are also one of the mostthe reasons for which cerebral edema occurs in newborns. It can be such diseases as meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, toxoplasmosis, subdural empyema, etc.
  3. Acute poisoning with alcohol, drugs, etc.
  4. A brain tumor in which its cells grow rapidly and begin to exert pressure on healthy brain tissue, triggering the onset of edema.
  5. Ischemic stroke is a disease in whichblood circulation in the brain is disrupted, which is due to clogging of the blood vessel with a thrombus. In this case, oxygen does not come in the right amount in the brain tissue. Thus, oxygen starvation occurs, the cells begin to die, and the brain develops swelling.
  6. Hemorrhage in the cranial cavity, which occurs due to damage to the blood vessel.
  7. Sharp change in atmospheric pressure.

Symptoms of swelling of the brain

The edema of the brain is accompanied by the manifestation of such symptoms:

  • general weakness, malaise, increased drowsiness;
  • severe headaches, fainting and dizziness;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • possibly impaired vision and orientation in space;
  • difficulty breathing, speech and memory impairment;
  • muscle spasms.

The emergence of such symptoms serve as a signal to urgently seek medical help. However, in the case of cerebral edema in newborns, the recognition of these symptoms becomes more complicated.

Diagnosis is carried out using computer tomography of the brain, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests.

Treat edema of the brain depending onreasons, by which he was called. The treatment is primarily aimed at restoring the supply of oxygen in sufficient volume to the brain cells. When an edema occurs due to a sudden change in atmospheric pressure or with a slight concussion of the brain, it usually passes by itself, without treatment. In other cases, treatment is required.

There are several methods of treating pathology:

  • Drug treatment involves the use of drugs that reduce intracranial pressure and eliminate the infection that caused swelling (if there was one).
  • In case of craniocerebral trauma, cerebral edema is treated with oxygen therapy - artificial introduction of oxygen into the patient's blood. The oxygenated blood removes the edema.
  • With hemorrhages and craniocerebral traumathe method of hypothermia is applied - the effect on the body of cold, after which the temperature is significantly reduced, normal metabolism is restored. The needs of the brain in oxygen decrease and the edema subsides.
  • In particularly difficult cases, surgicalmethod (surgery is necessary primarily in cases of splinters entering the brain). This method removes excess fluid from the brain. This method of treatment is the most risky.

Even after removal of cerebral edema are possiblenegative consequences for health. This can be a deterioration of well-being, headaches, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and intellectual processes. To prevent the occurrence of such complications, it is important that you consult your doctor in a timely manner.

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