What hormone is administered to a patient with a mucous edema
The task of the lesson. To acquaint students with the structure and functions of the thyroid gland; give an idea of the characteristic features of endocrine glands and hormones,
Equipment. Demonstration material: tables: "Glands of internal secretion", "Results of experiments that determine the importance of the thyroid gland" (self-made); the film "The glands of internal secretion"; transparencies; moist drug of the thyroid gland.
1. Repetition and verification of knowledge. Hormones of the adrenal gland and pancreas.
2. Studying new material. The structure and location of the thyroid gland.
Story using a schematic drawing on the blackboard.
Experiments that clarify the functions of the thyroid gland.
Conversation or demonstration of the movie (1st and 2nd part).
Observations of people with thyroid disorders.
Conversation. Drawing up a table in a notebook.
Importance of thyroid hormones. Hormones of the pituitary gland.
The practical importance of knowledge about hormones.
3. Generalization and verification of knowledge
Conducting a lesson
The content of the lesson is directly related toprevious, and therefore at the beginning it is good to repeat the material by telling the two students about hormones of the pancreas and adrenal glands. After their answers, a short frontal conversation is held on the issues contained in the textbook. Students report on the assignment and answer the questions "Make up".
In the first part of the search conversation at the disclosurenew material consistently considered the results of experiments on the removal of the thyroid gland in young animals depicted on a self-made table. The teacher gives an idea of the conditions of the experiments, and the students on the table or drawings in the textbook characterize the experimental animals, comparing them with normal, control (puppies and pigs with a distant thyroid gland, delayed metamorphosis in tadpoles).
Students draw conclusions from the above experiments onanimals. Then the students look at the slides, they look at the table "Glands of internal secretion" of patients with mucous edema and Grape disease. With the help of the teacher, students make the following entry in the notebook:
(the number of hormones is increased)
The skin is wet.
Breathing and palpitations are rapid.
The temperature is increased.
Excitability of the nervous system is increased.
(the number of hormones decreased)
The skin is dry, hair falls out.
Respiration and palpitation slowed.
The temperature is lowered.
Excitability is decreased, lethargy, muscle weakness.
After filling in the table, students formulateconclusions about the effect of thyroid hormones on the body. First they talk about the effect on growth, metamorphosis, ie, development. The teacher proposes to link the conclusions from the factual material with the knowledge of the metabolism. Then the students correctly pay attention to the influence of the thyroid hormone on the enhancement of metabolism, increasing the expenditure of oxygen. The teacher characterizes thyroxine: thyroxine is an amino acid, the molecule of which contains 4 iodine atoms. The introduction of one milligram of thyroxine into the body increases the energy expenditure by 100 kcal. It can be pointed out that the study by the method of labeled atoms showed the accumulation of almost all iodine introduced into the body in the thyroid gland.
In a conversation about the treatment of diseases associated withimpaired activity, thyroid, the teacher poses the following questions: how to treat mucous edema? How to treat the base of the disease? Which is better, to inject hormones into the blood or transplant the glands under the skin or into the abdominal cavity? What is better, to feed the gland slices or to inject hormones into the blood?
When comparing the normal growth of people withdwarfs and giants, students easily learn the material about the importance of pituitary hormones. It is only necessary to point out that dwarfs are normal people in their mental and physical development, and pituitary giants sometimes differ in weakened health. At the conclusion of this part of the conversation, the teacher reports on the importance of the pituitary gland, which is often called the "conductor of the orchestra of hormones." It produces hormones that affect the work of other internal glands, secretions. Pituitary hormones also affect different aspects of metabolism, increase the ability to reduce smooth muscle, delay water in the body, affect the metabolism of fat, blood pressure.
All glands of internal secretion anywayinteract with each other. Several hormones act on the life processes; some intensify a process, others weaken. So, for example, normal growth requires growth hormone pituitary, and thyroxine, and insulin.
Under the continuous control of internal glandssecretion is the work of the kidneys, liver, sweat glands, actively involved in maintaining the consistency of blood, tissue fluid and lymph. Hormones regulate metabolism, adapting it to the changing conditions of life; they quickly eliminate deviations from the norm in the internal environment. In the action of hormones, you can also see specific examples of self-regulation inherent in the body. So, for example, when the secretion of pituitary hormones increases, the secretion of adrenal hormones increases; their accumulation in the blood inhibits the activity of the pituitary gland, and everything comes to normal. Or another example: under the influence of adrenaline increases the amount of sugar in the blood, and this stimulates the production of insulin, which removes excess sugar from the blood.
At the conclusion of the conversation, the teacher, depicting on the blackboard the diagram (Figure 67), once again points to the relationship between humoral and nervous regulation.
The student, who prepared a report on the practical importance of knowledge about hormones, talks about the treatment of patients, about new medicinal preparations, etc.
Verification of the assimilation of the material can be carried out very economically.
The teacher writes on the blackboard or dictates to the students fornotes in the notebooks the conditional code for the designation of hormones, for example: thyroxine-a, growth hormone-b, adrenaline-in, insulin-e. Then he dictates the questions, and the students should mark the number of the question and write only the letter designating the name of the hormone. The work is checked very quickly. The work takes no more than 7-8 minutes and consists of two options.
I option. 1. Under what hormone can a person become pale? (at)
2. Sugar is found in the human urine. What hormone is missing from this patient? (e)
3. Which hormone significantly increases energy consumption in the body? (a)
4. Under the influence of which hormone, the tadpole in the experiment very quickly turned into a small frog? (a)
The students answer is as follows:
II option. 1. Specify hormones of the opposite action (form).
2. What hormone, the amount of which usually increases after eating, helps to convert sugar into glycogen? (at)
3. Which hormone is secreted strongly in the blood with strong feelings (in) 4. What hormone deficiency leads to the disease with mucous edema? (a)
Assignment to the house. article textbook "Thyroid and pituitary gland."
Fig. 67. Diagram of the relationship between nervous and humoral regulation:
1 - the nervous system; 2 - internal ironsecretion; 3 - cells of organs; 4 - circulatory system. Arrows show that the nervous system affects the cells (5) and the glands of internal secretion (6) directly. The glands of internal secretion through the circulatory system (7) affect the nervous system (8) and cells (9), in addition, the chemicals of many cells also affect the nervous system (10)
A lesson on the topic "Thyroid gland and pituitary gland" (second version)
If at the lesson the teacher shows the film "Ironinternal secretion ", then his material replaces the search conversation and the discussion of experiments. The fixing of the material is carried out by solving the following problem questions: in some mountainous areas, as well as in areas with podzolic soils, water and soils are poor in iodine. People get it not enough because they drink water and eat plants that do not have enough iodine. The thyroid gland reacts to the lack of iodine by the weak production of the hormone with a strong growth of the connective tissue of the gland itself. It reaches 4-5 kilograms. The disease is called goiter. How to treat goiter? How to prevent disease? (Potassium iodide is added to table salt.)
Axolotl - larval stage of caudateamphibian amphibia. Usually, under normal conditions of life, it does not become an adult animal, but reproduces in the larval state. But if the axolotl is fed by the thyroid gland, it turns into an ambisto. What two conclusions can be drawn from these facts?
Several centuries ago, one of the Chinese emperors forbade the inhabitants of one city to eat algae. Why, then, did a mass disease of goiter begin among the population?
What do the cases when, after severe nervous shocks, people have had thyroid disease?
The students' answers are evaluated.