Edema of the brain at birth
For 9 months, parents are looking forward tothe birth of a small miracle. Future mom and dad experience a variety of feelings during this time: joy and emotions, happiness and fear. The birth of a baby is the happiest moment in their life, which is often overshadowed by the news that a newborn has any health problems. For example, a child may have asphyxiation. Many moms and dads are starting to get very nervous about this.
In most cases, the experiences turn out to be unnecessarily strong, because parents do not know what is happening at this time with their child and how modern medicine copes with similar situations.
Under asphyxia of newborns is understoodthe pathological state of children born to the world, which breaks down breathing and develops oxygen deficiency. This dangerous and serious condition can occur both during childbirth and after them in the first days of life crumbs.
Causes of asphyxia in newborns
A baby does not have asphyxia withouta certain cause, but before talking about them, it is worth paying attention to the types of this pathological state of the child. Asphyxia is classified into primary and secondary. First view occurs in the fetus during childbirth. Chronic or acute intrauterine hypoxia causes this pathological condition. Asphyxiation can also occur because of:
- intracranial trauma in the baby, received by him during childbirth;
- malformations of the fetus, affecting breathing and causing its difficulty;
The causes of primary asphyxiathe child may be the presence of extragenital diseases in the mother. For example, a fetus may suffer from the fact that a pregnant woman has cardiovascular disease, diabetes, iron deficiency anemia. The child may also have asphyxia if the future mother suffers from gestosis (late toxicosis), which is accompanied by increased pressure and swelling of the extremities.
Quite often the causes of asphyxia of newbornslie in the pathological structure of the placenta, umbilical cord, membranes. Risk factors include premature detachment of amniotic fluid, premature detachment of the placenta. incorrect insertion of the fetal head during labor.
Secondary asphyxia occurs in the child a few hours or days after birth. Its reasons may be:
- heart defects;
- violation of cerebral circulation in the baby;
- defeat of the central nervous system.
The most common cause of secondary asphyxia -pneumopathy (disseminated and polysegmentary atelectasis, hemorrhages in the lungs, edematous hemorrhagic syndrome, hyaline membranes). They occur during the intrauterine period or during childbirth and are accompanied by the development of the syndrome of respiratory disorders.
What happens in the body of newborns in asphyxia?
With this pathological condition, the newborn begins to change the metabolic processes in the body, the severity of which depends on the degree of asphyxia and its duration.
When acute asphyxia . developing against a background of chronic hypoxia of the fetus. hypovolemia is observed. This term refers to a decrease in the volume of circulating blood. It becomes thicker and more viscous.
In the brain, heart, liver, kidney is possibleThe presence of hemorrhages and edema that occur due to lack of oxygen. Hypoxia of the fetus and asphyxia of the newborn leads to a decrease in blood pressure. The number of cardiac contractions is significantly reduced. The urinary function of the kidneys is disrupted.
Symptoms of asphyxia in newborns
This pathological condition is diagnosed by doctorschildren in the first seconds of life. The frequency and adequacy of respiration, skin color, indices of muscle tonus, palpitation, reflex excitability are estimated.
The main sign of the presence of asphyxia in a child - violation of the breathing process. leading to serious changes in the body. Immediately after the appearance of the baby, doctors conduct a thorough examination. His condition is assessed on the Apgar scale.
The following forms of asphyxiation are distinguished:
When light form asphyxia state of crumbs on Apgar scaleis estimated at 6-7 points. The child makes his first breath within the first minute after birth. However, his breathing is weakened, the muscle tone is reduced, and the nasolabial triangle has a bluish tinge.
When middle form Asphyxia evaluation of the baby is 4-5points. The child, as well as with mild asphyxia, will breathe in for the first 60 seconds. His breathing will be weakened (irregular or regular). The baby can have tachycardia, fading reflexes, decreased muscle tone, bradycardia. The skin of the face, hands and feet will have a bright bluish tinge.
The condition of the child when severe form asphyxia is estimated at 1-3 points. Respiration is characterized by an irregular character. It may be absent altogether. The kid does not cry, but only occasionally moans. The palpitation is slowed down, and there are no reflexes. Muscular atony or hypotension is also observed. The skin is characterized by a pale shade. The umbilical cord does not pulsate. Quite often, with such a degree of asphyxia in a newborn, adrenal insufficiency occurs.
When clinical death doctors give the child a zero grade on the Apgar scale. Specialists to save the life of the baby begin immediately to carry out a complex of resuscitation measures.
It should be noted that asphyxia is detected not onlyby external examination and evaluation of the state of crumbs on the Apgar scale. The study of the acid-base state of the blood serves as confirmation of the diagnosis. With the help of ultrasound of the brain and methods of neurological examination, it is possible to determine the damage to the central nervous system (extensive subdural, subarchanoid, intraventricular hemorrhages, etc.).
All babies born in thispathological condition, require intensive care. Doctors carry out certain activities in the delivery room in the first minutes of life, keeping a close eye on the basic parameters of life:
- heart rate;
- frequency and depth of inspiration and exhalation;
For these indications, health professionals assess the effectiveness of the measures taken and adjust them, if necessary.
What kind of actions are performed by doctors at the birth of a child? First of all, when the head of a doctor appears in the nasal cavity and mouth introduces a special probe . With its help, the remains of mucus and amniotic fluid are removed from the upper respiratory tract.
After the child is completely removed from the birth canal, doctors will cut the umbilical cord. The baby will be placed on the resuscitation table and re-aspirated of the contents of the nasopharynx and stomach.
After restoring the child's cardiac and respiratory activity will be transferred to the intensive care unit . This will not end the doctors' actions. Further measures of medical workers will be aimed at eliminating the consequences of newborn asphyxiation: restoration of metabolic processes, elimination of cerebral edema, normalization of kidney function.
Care after a child after asphyxiation
For a baby after a delayed asphyxia is requiredspecial medical care. The child needs to provide complete peace. Its head should be in a raised position. An important role is played by oxygen therapy.
Babies after mild asphyxiation shouldbe in a special tent with a high oxygen content inside it. There is no specific period of stay in it. One child is required to stay in the tent for several hours, and another - several days. The time of stay in the oxygen tent is determined by the doctor after assessing the condition of the child.
A newborn who suffered asphyxia in severeor medium form, is placed in a luggage compartment. There is oxygen. Inside the kouveze, the concentration of this chemical element should be about 40%. Some maternity hospitals may lack the necessary equipment. In this case, special nasal cannulas or respiratory masks are used. Through them, oxygen is supplied.
For a newborn child after asphyxiait is necessary to observe. It is necessary to control body temperature, bowel function, diuresis. Quite often, repeated cleaning of the respiratory tract from mucus and other contents is required.
The first feeding of a baby who has undergone an easy orthe average form of asphyxia, is produced 16 hours after the birth. Children, faced with a severe form of asphyxia, are fed the day after birth with a special probe. The question of when to apply to a baby's breast after asphyxiation is of interest to many mothers. There is no concrete answer to it. The time of the initiation of breastfeeding is determined on an individual basis, depending on the condition of the baby.
What to do after discharge from the maternity hospital?
The baby after discharge from the hospital should be under the supervision of a neurologist and pediatrician. The purpose of medical control is to prevent the occurrence of complications from the central nervous system.
The prognosis of doctors depends on the following factors:
- degree of severity of the pathological condition;
- timeliness of treatment initiation;
- adequacy of medical measures.
If the baby was born with asphyxia, then the prognosisis directly dependent on a secondary assessment of his condition, which is made on the Apgar scale 5 minutes after the birth. The forecast will be favorable if the second rating is higher than the first.
During the first years of life, the following effects of asphyxia in newborns can be observed:
- hydrocephalic syndrome;
- diencephalic disorders;
- convulsive syndrome;
- hypo- and hyperexcitability.
The above complications occur most often after a severe form of asphyxia. To prevent their occurrence, dispensary observation is necessary for doctors.
Measures for the prevention of asphyxia in newborns
Asphyxia can causerather serious health problems. With this pathological condition can not be encountered at all, if you perform certain actions aimed at preventing asphyxia. They do not always help, but in spite of this, one should not give them up. In 40% of cases they give a positive result.
It has already been mentioned above that the cause of asphyxia can be intrauterine hypoxia. It can be avoided if you regularly visit a doctor.
During the "interesting situation" you need to identify all the risk factors:
- infectious and somatic diseases (acute respiratory diseases, flu, cold);
- age of the fair sex;
- a disruption in the endocrine system;
- change in the hormonal background of a woman;
- presence of situations in life that cause stress;
- bad habits (alcohol, smoking).
Do not forget about intrauterine monitoringcondition of the placenta and fetus. It is very important, because thanks to him, it is possible to identify various violations in time. On the condition of the placenta, it can be determined whether the fetus experiences oxygen starvation or not. Signal danger - the presence of amniotic fluid in the amniotic fluid. At the first suspicions of hypoxia, it is necessary to begin the appropriate therapy as soon as possible.
All of the above is a confirmation that you need to regularly visit a gynecologist. This in no case can not be neglected, because under threat is the baby's health and his life.
An important role in the prevention of hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus and the newborn is played by the correct way of life of the woman. The future mother should follow a few simple rules:
It is more to walk. A pregnant woman is more freetime spend in the fresh air. Her blood is saturated with oxygen, which is then transported to the fetus. The child needs this element. Oxygen is necessary for him for proper development and growth.
Some women believe that walks areuseful only in the event that they pass not in the city, but outside it. This point of view is incorrect. You can walk in the city at any time of the year in the nearest park or square.
Observe the regime of the day. A pregnant woman should forget about the former"The crazy rhythm of life" when she was sitting at night at the computer, went to bed late, woke up early in the morning and went to work. Now you need to sleep at night for at least 9 hours and in the daytime it is recommended to find a couple of hours for sleep.
Take vitamin and mineral complexes. A pregnant woman and her baby, who is stillin the tummy, vitamins and nutrients are required. Unfortunately, the quality of modern products does not allow you to get all the necessary minerals and trace elements. "Wand-zaschalochkoy" are special preparations - vitamin-mineral complexes.
With their help you can meet the needsmother and child. However, the drug should appoint a gynecologist. It is not necessary to make decisions independently, because some people do not need vitamins and minerals, and their excess can harm both mother and child.
Preservation of peace of mind and positive mood. Pregnancy is an unforgettable period inlife of a woman. It is associated not only with joyful moments, but also with experiences, stresses. The future mother needs to worry less. With all the worries, excitement can be easily dealt with. You just need to learn how to do this.
Pregnant women are recommended to cross out ofhis life negative emotions. Dreams about the future will help to maintain a positive mood and peace of mind. You can bring bright colors to your life by watching good comedies, reading gay books, communicating with positive people.
In conclusion, it should be noted that asphyxia isa serious pathological condition, but do not worry if it affects your children. Doctors thanks to modern devices will quickly notice something wrong and take the necessary measures that will protect newborns from the consequences of asphyxiation and save their life.