Drugs diuretics for edema
Edema is a problem that accompanies manydiseases of different etiology, in addition, under certain circumstances, they can appear in healthy people. In some cases, excess fluid is eliminated from the body by itself, and swelling goes away, but most often requires the use of diuretics (diuretics).
When swelling occurs, especially in people with cardiovascular and renal disease, as well as in pregnant women, you should immediately contact a doctor.
Edema is a very important prognostic sign,and their localization and appearance time help the doctor even before the beginning of the instrumental examination to make a preliminary diagnosis and provide first aid to the patient.
Diuretics are used both to provideemergency care for patients (for example, with swelling of the lungs or the brain), and as part of the complex therapy of many diseases. You should take these medications seriously, they are taken to the doctor's prescription, periodic monitoring of the blood indicators is necessary, since along with the excess fluid the body loses other substances. We bring to your attention an overview of the remedies that doctors most often assign to patients with edema.
There are several groups of diuretics,different mechanisms of action and having different indications for use and side effects. Only a doctor on the basis of the patient's examination data can decide which particular drug to recommend.
Thiazide diuretics and their derivatives
The most commonly used drugs in this group are hydrochlorothiazide and indapamide.
The effects of drugs in this group are based onpartial suppression of the reverse absorption of sodium in the distal renal tubules, as a result of which sodium ions are eliminated from the body together with excess fluid. In addition, some representatives of this class of drugs have a vasodilating effect. Preparations are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, the effect after their administration occurs in 1-2 hours, however, in order to achieve a full therapeutic effect, a long course intake (at least 3-4 months) is necessary. Their effectiveness is lower than that of loop diuretics, however, these drugs can be used for prolonged therapy.
When taking drugs due to a diuretic effectthe volume of circulating blood decreases, as a result of which cardiac output decreases and blood pressure decreases. Therefore, thiazide diuretics and their analogs are most often used to get rid of edema in chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as essential arterial hypertension and heart failure.
When taking medications this group cana number of side effects are observed. The most serious of them is a decrease in the level of potassium and sodium in the blood serum, which can lead to heart disorders. Therefore, to take thiazide diuretics follows the doctor's prescription in the recommended doses, periodically check the level of electrolytes in the blood.
To loop diuretics are preparations based on furosemide and torasemide.
Loop diuretics act in the ascending partloops of Henle. They increase the excretion of sodium, and, accordingly, water and kidneys. The effect of their application occurs quickly enough (especially with intravenous administration), so they are usually used for emergency help with swelling of the lungs. Perhaps their use inside short courses in the treatment of chronic heart failure, one of the symptoms of which are swelling. It should be noted that loop diuretics also contribute to the relaxation of the smooth muscles of the vessels. These drugs, unlike many others, are effective in disorders of kidney function.
The diuretic effect occurs fairly quickly afterintake of drugs inside, and even faster with intravenous administration, lasts no more than 6 hours. The main side effect of taking loop diuretics is a decrease in the level of potassium in the blood, as well as an increased loss of magnesium, which can adversely affect the work of the heart.
These include two groups of drugs that have a moderate diuretic effect.
One group of medicines to whichthe preparations Amiloride and Triamteren act directly in the tubules of the nephrons, affecting the excretion of sodium and water, but at the same time reducing the excretion of potassium.
The second group of drugs relates to antagoniststhe hormone aldosterone, its main representative is Spironolactone. When they are used, the excretion of sodium increases, and, accordingly, water, and the potassium ions remain in the blood stream. Antagonists of aldosterone are used to get rid of edema that occur in diseases accompanied by an increase in the level of the hormone aldosterone (primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism), as well as diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Preparations of this group are most often used incomposition of complex therapy, sometimes in combination with loop or thiazide diuretics. In this case, their use is explained by the need to prevent hypokalemia, which can occur when taking other groups of diuretics.
The most serious side effect that can occur isarise when taking potassium-sparing diuretics - this is hyperkalemia, so they are not recommended to be taken simultaneously with potassium preparations. Also, the use of aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone) with ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme) is incompatible, since the latter reduce the concentration of this hormone in the blood.
In some cases, patients to get rid ofedema. recommended herbal preparations that have a diuretic effect. Of course, the strength of the effect they can not be compared with drugs, however, in many cases, the use of herbs can be enough to remove excess fluid from the body.
The diuretic effect is possessed by leaves of cowberry,kidneys and leaves of birch, juniper fruits, bearberry, chamomile, golden-thousand-centner, etc. Herbal decoctions and infusions are most often used for edema that occur with kidney diseases. In addition to diuretic, some of them have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, which is especially useful in inflammatory diseases of the urinary system.
Diuretic herbs are recommended for use whentreatment of children and pregnant women, to whom many medications are contraindicated. However, it is impossible to take herbal decoctions and infusions uncontrolled, and also to replace diuretics prescribed by a doctor independently by them. It should also be remembered that any plant product may develop an allergic reaction. Diuretics are taken by courses, because over time the body becomes accustomed to them, and the effectiveness of treatment is reduced.
With prolonged use of plant diureticsalso requires monitoring of blood parameters, since excess fluid excreted sodium and potassium is displayed (though in a smaller amount than when taking medications).
To which doctor to apply
If swelling develops, you should first refer totherapist for initial examination and diagnosis. If the disease is already known, you need to consult an appropriate specialist: cardiologist, nephrologist, vascular surgeon, obstetrician-gynecologist, endocrinologist.