Edema of the risk factors
Quincke's Edema is a sudden developing acutean allergic reaction, manifested in the form of the emergence of a limited or diffuse edema of the mucous membranes and subcutaneous fat. Other names for this condition are acute angioedema or trophoneurotic edema, angio edema, giant urticaria.
Quincke's edema refers to allergic reactions of immediate type and appears almost immediately (after a few minutes, less often - hours) after contact with the allergen.
Causes and risk factors for Quincke edema
Quincke's edema often occurs in women of young age. Other risk factors for this condition are:
- the presence of allergic pathology (atopic dermatitis, drug and food allergy, pollinosis, bronchial asthma and other diseases);
- the emergence of Quincke's edema in the past;
- the presence of acute or exacerbation of chronic diseases (liver and pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pathology, parasitic diseases, blood diseases and others).
Quincke's edema occurs in the body with repeatedcontact with an allergen against which there are already specific antibodies. As a result, a number of biologically active substances are evolved that cause an increase in the permeability of the wall of the vessels and, consequently, tissue edema.
Most often, Quincke's edema occurs when in contact with the following allergens:
- food products: nuts (especially - peanuts), honey, seafood, chocolate, eggs, citrus and exotic fruits, milk, berries;
- medicines (any);
- pollen of plants;
- animal allergens: epidermis, wool, insect bites;
- cosmetics, household chemicals.
There are hereditary forms of the Quincke edema. It is based on the congenital insufficiency of a number of biologically active substances. In such patients, the disease can occur both under the influence of allergens, and as a result of nonspecific factors (for example, stress, infection, hypothermia).
Sometimes the cause of the disease can not be identified. In this case, they speak of the idiopathic edema of Quincke.
Classification of Quincke edema:
- acquired and hereditary;
- Isolated and combined with other allergic conditions (eg, urticaria).
Symptoms of Quincke Edema
For Quincke edema the following manifestations are characteristic:
- sudden appearance (develops within a few minutes, maximum - hours);
- a sharp swelling of the skin and mucous membranes, accompanied by a feeling of "tension" of the tissues;
- is more often located on the face, lips, tongue, soft palate, tonsils, less often - in the genital and urinary tract, in the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract;
- pain and other unpleasant sensations usually do not arise;
- pressure on the area of the edema is also painless, the pits do not remain;
- it is possible to combine with any other manifestations of allergies, for example, urticaria or an attack of bronchial asthma.
Symptoms of the disease can last forseveral hours or even days, and then disappear without leaving a trace. But as the Quincke's edema can cause serious complications, it is not necessary to wait for its independent resolution.
Quincke's edema is a life-threatening disease, as it can cause the following conditions:
- can itself be the beginning of the most severe allergic reaction of immediate type - anaphylactic shock;
- sharp edema of the larynx and tongue can lead to difficulty breathing (asphyxia), accompanied by a loss of voice (aphonia), "barking" cough, cyanosis of the tongue and sharp pallor of the skin;
- in some cases, edema can spread tomeninges and brain, becoming the cause of neurological symptoms (convulsions, paralysis, paresis, speech disorder, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms);
- damage to the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract can cause acute pain in the abdomen, nausea and vomiting, upset of the stool, sometimes - peritonitis;
- with the localization of edema in the genitourinary system, there may be manifestations of acute cystitis and urinary retention.
The most dangerous are anaphylactic shock,as well as complications from the brain and respiratory tract. In the absence of timely medical assistance, they pose a serious threat to the life of the patient.
Occurring once, Quincke's edema may appear again when exposed to the same allergen or others. Therefore, in the future, you should try to avoid contact with the factor that caused the disease.
Diagnosis of Quincke edema
There are no special diagnostic methods. As a rule, a specialist will easily identify the disease on the basis of characteristic symptoms.
Will help to determine the edema of Quincke factrecent contact with a provoking factor (for example, pollen of plants), as well as the presence of other allergic diseases in the patient, such as atopic dermatitis, pollinosis, bronchial asthma.
Treatment of Quincke Edema
If there is an angioedema, help should be urgent. What you need to do in case of its appearance:
1) Call "03".
2) Remove contact with the allergen.
3) Sitting patient in a comfortable position and calm.
4) Provide oxygen access: wide open the window, loosen the tie, unbutton the shirt.
5) Cold compress can be applied to the edema area.
6) If possible, take antihistaminemedicinal product (Suprastin, Claritin, Eryus, Zirtek or any other) in the age-appropriate dosage indicated in the instructions. The desire to take more pills at once, "to be sure", will not lead to anything good. The drug and so will act in the right dose, and the symptoms of an overdose can only worsen the patient's condition.
7) To improve the tone of the sympathetic nervousThe system can take vitamin C, calcium preparations. Ascorutin reduces vascular permeability, thereby contributing to the disappearance of edema. In the nose, vasoconstrictor drops can be dripped.
Hormonal preparations should not be taken alone.
The listed activities are held before arrivalspecialists and in no case are an alternative to qualified medical care. Patients with Quinck edema in a moderate or severe form should receive treatment in a hospital.
The methods of treatment of Quincke's edema, applied by ambulance and in the hospital, include:
- use of hormonal and antihistamines;
- the introduction of adrenaline with the appearance of signs of difficulty breathing and falling blood pressure;
- diuretic drugs, atropine, ephedrine, infusion, disintoxication therapy and various symptomatic methods.
In no case should you try to treat Quincke's edema yourself without the help of specialists. You can hurt the patient or lose time, contributing to the occurrence of serious complications of the disease.
Prophylaxis of Quincke Edema
Special preventive measures for this condition are notdeveloped. However, there are a number of useful recommendations, observance of which can help to avoid the recurrence of the disease and reduce its severity:
1) Limitation of contact with allergens.
2) If the disease manifests itself under the influence of other factors (for example, cold or stress), they should also be deleted as far as possible.
3) It is necessary to timely treatment of chronic diseases, as they contribute to allergic organism.
4) Tell your relatives about your illness, as well as the methods of first aid, which they will have to provide, if necessary.
5) If possible, courses of antiallergic drugs are prescribed. For example, during the flowering period of plants for allergies to pollen.
In the case of Quincke's edema on the drug, it is necessary to report this undesirable side reaction to your doctor.
Date of publication: 04/02/2014.