The swollen and swollen muscles of the thighs
The musculature of the legs is divided into the muscles of the hipareas (internal and external) and lower limb (muscles of the thigh, lower leg and foot). They are responsible for movement in the knee and ankle joints, as well as in the joints of the feet and fingers.
Causes of leg pain
Painful sensations in the muscular apparatus of the lower limbs can be caused by a large number of diseases. They can be divided into the following groups:1.Pathologies of the spine and nerves:
- sciatica and sciatica;
- neuralgia and neuritis.
- arthritis and arthrosis;
- flat feet;
- myoenitis and paratenonitis;
- fractures of the bones of the legs;
- benign and malignant tumors of bones.
- atherosclerosis of the arteries;
- muscle and ligament ruptures;
- physical stress and fatigue;
- pathologies of water-salt balance;
Pain in leg muscles with spine and nerve pathologies
Radiculitis is a disease of the nervous system associated with the defeat of bundles of nerve fibers that depart from the spinal cord.
Leading symptom radiculitis - pain along the course of affected nerves,changes in sensitivity, and sometimes motor disorders. When a lumbosacral radiculitis occurs, the sciatic nerve is affected, which innervates the entire lower limb. This disease is also called sciatica. With this pathology, painful sensations are observed in the lumbosacral region and buttocks, and also give the muscles of the thighs, shins and feet, strengthening with movements. A characteristic symptom is the flexion and clamping of the leg in the bed, which leads to some reduction in pain. Often, the pain syndrome is accompanied by a feeling of coldness of the limb, "crawling craw" and numbness of the skin.
Sciatica develops more often at an osteochondrosislumbar spine. The spine itself in this pathology may not bring unpleasant sensations - the sign of the lesion will be only pain in the course of the sciatic nerve, which spreads in the leg.The following symptoms are also characteristic for this disease:
- pains in the buttock that spread from the waist to the foot;
- an increase in painful sensations when sneezing. coughing or prolonged sitting;
- burning or numbness in the leg;
- weakness, "vatnost", fatigue and heaviness in the lower extremities.
Neuritis of the peripheral nerves is also capable of provoking the appearance pain in the legs . With such pathologies, the pain bearsparoxysmal nature, and spreads along the course of nerve fibers. The duration of the attack is usually small - from 5-10 seconds to several minutes. In interictal periods, pain is almost absent.
Pain in leg muscles in diseases of bones, joints and ligaments
Gout is a pathology that is associated with impaired purine metabolism. It is characterized by an increase in the content of uric acid in the blood, and the accumulation of its salts (urates) in the tissues of the joints.
A typical gouty attack begins withthe appearance of pain in the joint of the big toe. With the progression of the disease, the pathological process spreads to an increasing number of joints - there is polyarthritis. Most often with gout suffer the joints of the lower extremities: the knee and ankle, the joints of the foot and toes.
Most gout attacks begin at nighttime. There is such an attack with a rapid increase in the temperature of the skin around the joint, and their redness. Sharply increases its soreness and puffiness. Painful, burning pains spread to the muscles of the legs. Inflammation captures and soft tissue, manifesting a clinical picture of phlebitis or cellulite. In severe cases, an attack causes an increase in the body's overall temperature. The average duration of gouty attacks is several days, and sometimes several weeks. After the disappearance of the symptoms, the joint gradually returns to its normal form.Gout exacerbations occur two to six times per year, and the factors that trigger the onset of an attack are:
- the use of alcoholic beverages;
- a large number of meat or fatty foods in the diet;
- abuse of cocoa. coffee or strong tea;
- bath procedures.
A characteristic symptom of gout is tofusi, whichare the centers of pathological seals in the subcutaneous tissue. Typical localization of tofusov - over the affected joints, on the auricles, on the extensor surfaces of the shins and thighs, on the Achilles tendons or on the forehead.
Arthritis is a chronic or acute inflammation in the joint and surrounding tissues, including muscles. This pathology serves as one of the manifestations of systemic diseases of connective tissue:
- systemic lupus erythematosus;
- metabolic disease;
- autoimmune pathologies.
If the pain in the joints and muscles of the legsare caused by arthritis, then most often in such patients inflammation spreads to other joints. Isolated lesions are rare. In addition, knee and ankle arthritis is characterized by symmetrical pain in both legs.
Arthritic pain in the inflamed joint and musclesoften has a very pronounced intensity. It can arise not only when moving, but also at rest. In addition, arthritis is characterized by the appearance of severe swelling and swelling. Skin over the inflamed area becomes red or crimson, their local temperature increases.In addition to pain in the muscles and joints, the symptoms of arthritis are:
- limb movement limitation;
- changing the shape of the joints;
- unnatural crunching in the joint under load.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronicinfectious-allergic joint damage, which is characterized by the spread of pain to nearby muscles. In the clinical picture of this disease, the following symptoms are noted:
- constant spontaneous pain in the joints and muscles, which is enhanced by active movements;
- edema and heaviness in the legs;
- local increase in skin temperature and appearance of swelling around affected joints;
- deformation of the joints and loss of their motor functions;
- the appearance on the skin of rheumatic nodules and vasculitis.
Aching pain in leg muscles with arthrosis
Osteoarthritis is calleddegenerative-dystrophic joint damage, which develops as a result of pathologies of cartilaginous tissues on articular surfaces. At first the pain arises periodically, only after physical exertion, and quickly disappears at rest. But as the disease develops, the intensity of pain increases, it grabs muscle tissue, does not disappear after rest and can appear at night. The main signs of osteoarthritis:
- "mechanical" nature of pain;
- morning stiffness;
- restriction of freedom of movement in the limb;
- painful seals and points along the edge of the joint space, and on the surrounding muscles;
- crunching in the joint.
Inflammation of articular and periarticular bagsKnee joints with accumulation in their cavities fluid (exudate) is called bursitis. This pathology is manifested by swelling, pain, heat and redness in the knee area. Edema can spread down the leg muscles, and cause pain and heaviness in them. With bursitis, pain is especially pronounced in the "kneeling" position and walking.
The main manifestation of bursitis is a mobile roundedswelling of the size of a chicken egg in the area of the affected joint, which has a soft consistency. Such a swelling is painful when palpated, and is clearly visible when the leg is extended in the knee.
In addition, the temperature of the skincovers in the field of inflammation, and they acquire a purple hue. Bursitis of the knee joint violates and limits the motor functions of the lower limb. With prolonged flow, bursitis becomes chronic, most often affecting the muscles of the lower leg. To the inflammation in such cases is added the accumulation of calcium deposits. which over time provokes constant pain and movement difficulties.The pathological microflora can join the inflammatory process. Develop purulent bursitis, and all the symptoms acquire a more pronounced intensity:
- severe muscular pain in the legs;
- rapid increase in body temperature;
- signs of an organism intoxication;
- headache ;
- nausea, etc.
Tendinitis is a fairly large groupinflammatory tendon diseases. In the event that the process affects not only the tendon itself, but also the surrounding shells, then there is evidence of the presence of tendovaginitis. Both these pathologies are accompanied by muscle pain and disturbances in the functioning of the musculoskeletal system. Inflammation of tendons reduces their strength, which is fraught with increased risk of tearing muscles and ligaments.The main signs of inflammation of the tendons are:
- pain in the muscles of the legs with active movements that require involvement of the affected tendon;
- relative painlessness with similar passive movements;
- pain when feeling along the muscles and inflamed tendons;
- increase in temperature and redness of the skin over the inflammation zone;
- crepitation (crunching) when moving.
Drawing pains in the muscles of the legs with fasciitis
Diffuse fasciitis is called inflammatorya process that affects the connective tissues of the muscles of the lower extremities. It causes limitations of mobility in the legs, the emergence of pulling pain and a decrease in the force of contractions in the joints.
In addition, this pathology is manifestedModifications of skin surfaces of the affected thigh and lower leg. The skin becomes more rough, loses elasticity and gets the appearance of an "orange peel". Often, under such a modified skin, you can feel small foci of seals.
Osteomyelitis is called purulent necrotica process that develops in the bones, bone marrow and surrounding muscle tissues. The cause of this disease is the ingestion of microorganisms producing pus. Osteomyelitis often occurs as a complication of various bone pathologies, for example, open fractures.Acute osteomyelitis occurs mainly in thechildren. It begins with a sharp rise in body temperature to 39-40 o C. The patient's condition deteriorates sharply, which is due to extensive intoxication of the body. Characteristic are also the following symptoms:
- sharp pains in the muscles;
- sometimes loss of consciousness and delirium;
- repeated vomiting;
- jaundice is possible.
In the first two days of the disease appearsevere pain in the thigh or lower leg, the affected lower limb acquires a forced position, pain contractures develop. Active movements in the leg are impossible, and passive movements are severely limited. Rapidly builds up edema in the muscles and soft tissues. The skin over the lesion becomes red, tense, often a pronounced venous pattern and an increase in local temperature.
When the pathology changes into chronic osteomyelitisthe patient feels somewhat better, the pain in the muscles of the legs decreases, and becomes aching. Disappear the signs of intoxication of the body, the body temperature comes back to normal. In the area of the lesion, fistulas with a scant purulent discharge begin to form. Several such fistulas can form a network of channels that open at a considerable distance from the pathological focus. In the future, persistent immobility of the joints, shortening of the affected limb and bending of the bones develop.
Pain in leg muscles with flat feet
One of the causes of permanent pain in the muscles of the lowerlimbs can serve as flat feet. With this pathology, the arch of the foot is flattened - it becomes flatter, which causes a violation of its damping functions. Inertial loads during running or walking can reach up to 200% of the body weight of a person. The arches of the foot are called to "extinguish" them, and if this does not happen, they lie on the joints and muscles of the lower limb.
Flat-footedness is manifested by the feeling of "leaden"weight, pain in the muscles of the legs and rapid fatigue when walking. Also, with this pathology, knee joints suffer greatly, since they account for the majority of the load. In addition, the load on the spine increases, since the body and the strokes must be compensated somehow.The main symptoms of flat feet are:
- Footwear and worn-out shoes on the inside;
- very rapid fatigue and the appearance of pain in the muscles of the legs during walking and prolonged standing in the vertical position;
- heaviness in the legs, their cramps and swelling by the end of the day;
- swelling of the ankles;
- increase foot size in width.
Nagging pains in the muscles of the legs during myoenthesitis and paratenonitis
Under these names unite the groupcombined inflammatory lesions of muscles and ligaments of the lower extremities. These pathologies are a consequence of chronic overstressing of the muscles of the legs during high and intense loads, and are accompanied by microtraumas of the muscles and ligaments. Additional risk factors are general fatigue, chronic diseases, hypothermia, etc.
Mioentezit - this is inflammation at the point of transition of the muscle to the tendon, paratenonitis - damage to the tissue around the tendon, insercite - inflammatory process at the site of attachmentligaments to the bone. All these pathologies are often combined with each other, and are manifested by pain in the muscles of the legs and swelling in the corresponding area. With the chronic course of these diseases, and continuing loads, muscle tears can occur, and sometimes - their complete detachment from the places of attachment.
Fractures of the leg bones are almost alwaysaccompanied by damage to muscle tissue with sharp bone fragments. Depending on the severity of the fracture (open or closed, with or without displacement), the pain in the leg muscles will have different intensity. Signs of fracture of the lower extremities are divided into two groups:1.Likely:
- pain, aggravated by any movements;
- swelling and swelling in the injured area;
- limitation of movement in the leg;
- the occurrence of subcutaneous hemorrhage.
- unnatural position of the limb;
- abnormal mobility of the leg in those places where there are no joints;
- crunching of rubbing bone fragments;
- visually detectable fragments with open fractures (in these cases, bleeding and traumatic shock join).
In addition, foot injuries are almost always associated.with blows or other intense physical effects. Therefore, pain in the muscles of the legs, even without fractures of the bones, can be caused by bruising or crushing of soft tissues.
The first manifestations that can be suspectedthe presence of a malignant pathological process in the body is an unreasonable weakness, a spontaneous increase in body temperature, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight. They are united in the so-called syndrome of "small signs." In the case of localization of tumors in the bones and joints of the lower extremities, one of the frequent symptoms is muscle pain.
At first, the pain syndrome is mild, andsometimes disappears on its own. With the progression of pathology, pain becomes persistent, constant, increasing over time. Although the tumor is located in the bone or periosteum - an increase in its size squeezes the surrounding muscles, nerves and blood vessels, causing aching pain. Their characteristic feature is the almost complete lack of effect when taking painkillers. Pains often change their intensity, but the tendency remains - the faster a tumor grows, the stronger they are.
Sometimes the first sign of a tumor in the joint orbones may be fractures that are not related to injury or other damage. They occur spontaneously, with sudden movements, lifting weights, and sometimes at rest. Such fractures are caused by instability of the bone structures, as in the process of increasing the tumor the bone loses its natural strength.
Pain in the leg muscles in the pathologies of the vessels of the lower extremities
Pain in leg muscles in atherosclerosis of arteries
One of the causes of pain in the legs may be atherosclerosis of lower limb arteries. This pathology develops with the deposition of cholesterol plaques on the inner wall of the artery.
This disease is characterized by sealsvascular wall, manifested by a feeling of compressive pain, often in the calf muscles. Pain increases when walking. In addition, a characteristic sign of atherosclerosis of the lower extremities is the feeling of cold feet, the appearance of which does not depend on the time of year.
Endarteritis is an inflammatory pathology.arterial vessels, which most often affects the lower limbs. A characteristic symptom of this disease is the so-called "intermittent claudication." Approximately the first hundred steps when walking is relatively easy, and then in one or both legs numbness, pain and heaviness are rapidly increasing. These symptoms disappear after a short rest, but reappear after a few dozen of the following steps. In addition, endarteritis, as well as atherosclerosis of lower limb arteries, is characterized by the appearance of a cold feeling in the legs. Also, with this pathology, patients often complain of the frequent occurrence of cramps in the muscles of the legs.
Aching pain in leg muscles during varicose veinsThe cause of varicose veinsis the expansion of the saphenous veins in the lower extremities, due to which the disease got its name. The initial stage of the pathology is manifested by few and rather non-specific symptoms. Patients complain about:
- unexpressed soreness, feeling of heaviness and fatigue of the legs;
- a feeling of fullness and the appearance of cramps in the calf muscles at night;
- numbness, "buzz" and swelling of the legs at the end of the day;
- burning sensation and "running goosebumps" in the feet and legs;
- unstable edema along the veins in the lower limbs;
- formation of stars and spiderwebs on the skin of the legs.
All the above symptoms differ in the pronounced individual variability of each patient, and in medicine they are called the restless legs syndrome. Varicose veins develop quite slowly - over the years, and sometimes decades. Its progress is promoted by:
- prolonged static loads on the lower limbs when in a vertical position;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- a long stay in a sitting position (for example, with frequent long trips or flights);
- use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy;
These reasons lead to a slower blood flow inveins of the lower extremities. The volume of blood that lingers in the veins increases, which leads to the appearance of a pressing, arching pain in the muscles of the legs.
It must be remembered that the most famoussymptoms of varicose veins in the form of protrusion of venous nodes and spider veins are not the first signs of the disease. The onset of pathology in most cases does not manifest visible skin changes. The first symptoms are most often pain, heaviness, tension, fatigue and swelling in the leg muscles. In the event of such complaints, it is best to immediately contact a specialist phlebologist.A detailed clinical picture of varicose veins of the lower extremities includes:
- swollen, nodular, protruding above the surface of the skin and translucent veins through it;
- intense pain in the muscles of the legs;
- inflammation of the skin over the vein area;
- the appearance of poorly healing ulcers and bleeding.
Thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory lesion.venous vessels, in which there are congestion of venous blood in the legs, an increase in its coagulability and the formation of blood clots - dense blood clots. This disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
1. Muscle pain of a pulsating nature, whichoften turn into a strong burning sensation under the skin. When thrombophlebitis pain is permanent? and often combined with heaviness and swelling in the calf muscles.
2. With the development of thrombophlebitis, painful induration with reddening of the skin along the veins is determined in the superficial veins of the legs.
3. Thrombophlebitis of the deep veins of the lower extremities is manifested by their pronounced edema, which is caused by severe violations of the venous outflow.
Often, thrombophlebitis becomes chronic.current with the periodic occurrence of exacerbations. The most terrible complication of this disease is the risk of separation of a blood clot from the inner walls of the venous vessel. This clot of clotted blood can move along the bloodstream of the body and cause blockage of vital vessels. The most common cause of pulmonary thromboembolism. development of myocardial infarction or acute vascular pathology of the brain is precisely the detached blood clot in thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities.
- feeling of heaviness and pain in the muscles of the legs;
- leg swelling;
- nutritional disorders of the skin, and the formation of trophic ulcerations on it;
- the development of erysipelas on the lower limbs;
- frequent adherence of infections.
Pain in the muscles of the legs with lesions of the muscles themselves
The main clinical symptom of myositis(inflammation of muscle tissue) are local pain. Their intensity increases with squeezing the muscle, as well as with loads on it during movements. This provokes the occurrence of protective tension in the affected muscle, which, in turn, further increases the pain, and leads to limitation of limb mobility. It forms a kind of vicious circle.
Myositis may develop as a complication.various diseases, for example, flu. Also a common cause of myositis is injury or excessive muscle tension due to unusual physical exertion.
The pain in myositis is extremely pronounced.character It can increase not only when the limb is moving, but even at night, at rest, or when the weather changes. Often in the muscles you can feel tight strands or knots.
In addition, over the area of inflammation is observedredness of the skin. With the development of the disease begins to increase muscle weakness, which as a result can lead to the development of complete or partial atrophy of skeletal muscles of the lower extremities.With open injuries and infection in the wound, purulent myositis may develop. It manifests itself:
- increased body temperature;
- gradual increase in muscle pain;
- swelling, tension and muscle tightening.
With parasitic damage of muscle tissue (trichinella or cysticerci), fever, marked pain in the leg muscles, as well as chest pain are observed. tongue and masticatory muscles.
The cause of such pain areprolonged or repeated loads on the muscles of the lower extremities. Localization of pain will depend on which particular muscle group suffers the most.
If, due to the nature of its activities orOther circumstances, a person is forced to spend a long time in a standing position, then there is a stagnation of blood in the lower extremities. Muscle tissue of the legs begin to experience oxygen starvation. slags, toxins and decomposition products, in particular, lactic acid, are no longer being removed. The result is pain in the muscles of the leg. It is aching, dull, or stabbing in nature, accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the legs, and sometimes convulsions.
Sharp pain in leg muscles during convulsions
Cramp or spasm are called involuntary contractions of a single muscle, or immediately the whole group. The cause of this condition can be various metabolic disorders in the body, poor circulation in the lower extremity, or severe muscle fatigue. The leading symptom of seizures is acute, almost unbearable pain in the gastrocnemius muscle. It appears almost always suddenly. Such symptoms may be episodic, and in this case are not a sign of pathology. But frequent spontaneous leg cramps (especially at night) is a reason for consulting a specialist.
Stretching the muscles of the lower limb may occurwhen jogging, walking fast, practicing any active sport. and sometimes even when wearing poorly chosen shoes. The first pain usually occurs immediately, or within a day after unusually high muscular loads. Muscles appear swollen, tense and heavy. Patients complain of pain, sometimes quite pronounced, arising from the feeling of the muscles. In some cases, it is joined by edema of muscle tissue, which is manifested by a significant increase in the size of the affected area. Pain and tenderness during palpation persist for several days, and sometimes weeks. Pain increases with movement, especially when bending the knee and ankle.
Flexion and extension in the lower jointslimbs associated, respectively, with stretching and contractions of its muscles. If such movements in the joints are performed suddenly, too abruptly, and with excessive force being applied, the result may be a break in the muscle tissue. Usually such damage is localized in a small area of the muscle, in the region of its connection with the tendon. But in some situations, quite large fractures can occur, sometimes even accompanied by complete separation of the muscles from the tendon. As a rule, such damage occurs when sharp bending of the limb in the direction opposite to the current force. An example is the moment of a sharp start or, on the contrary, a sudden stop during a run.
A muscle break is always accompanied by a suddensevere pain in the lower limb. Patients describe this sensation as a direct blow to the leg. The pain syndrome may subside for a while, but then it always comes back, the pain becomes permanent and increases with hematoma growth and the development of muscle spasm.
When feeling the injured limblocal pains are noted. Sometimes to the touch you can determine the swelling caused by extensive hemorrhage. In the event of a complete rupture (that is, tearing of the muscle in the area of its attachment to the tendon), it is even possible to grope the gap that occurs between the ligament and the muscle. Such injuries are always accompanied by severe swelling in the area of the damaged muscle, and a sharp decrease in range of motion.
Soft Tissue Syndrome - this is verya serious disorder that occurs due to strong and / or prolonged pressure on muscle tissue. After a short, painless stage, massive internal hemorrhage occurs in the damaged muscle. The resulting hematoma squeezes the nerve fibers and blood vessels, aggravating the degree of damage. The affected area becomes swollen, hot to the touch, there are severe pains in it.
The most serious complication that occursin this condition - the development of irreversible damage to muscle tissue and nerve fibers. In this case, there is destruction of the muscles, and their full or partial functional failure, which makes it impossible to move normally.
Aching pain in leg muscles with spontaneous hematomas
Sometimes patients who receive therapyanticoagulants. may mark the appearance of sudden hemorrhages in the muscles of the lower limbs. This pathology is characterized by aching pain and an increase in the size of the affected area. Such hematomas are formed out of touch with previous injuries, or as a result of very minor injuries.
Fibromyalgia is a rheumatoid disease,which affects mainly women in old age, and is capable of being transmitted along the female line to children. In this pathology, disorders in the soft tissues surrounding the joints develop. In the lower limbs, the hip region is most susceptible to fibromyalgia, closer to the knee joints. Also affects the muscles of the neck, occipital area, shoulders, chest and lower back. Pain arises or increases with physical or mental overload, sleep disturbances, injuries, exposure to dampness or cold.
Pain in leg muscles with metabolic disorders and pathologies
To pain in the muscles of the lower limbs canreduce the amount of some salts in the blood. A similar condition occurs during dehydration, which is caused by prolonged diarrhea. abundant vomiting or taking diuretics.
The main symptoms of violations of water-saltBalance are enduring thirst and the occurrence of common edema. It is also possible to lower arterial blood pressure. the appearance of heartbeats and heart rhythm disorders.
Cellulitis - acute purulent inflammation of spilledcharacter (cellulitis) subcutaneous fatty tissue. The reason for this pathology is the ingress of pathogenic microorganisms into the fatty tissue through damaged skin. The inflammatory process in this case necessarily affects the muscle tissue. In addition to muscle pain, cellulite is manifested by sharp increases in body temperature, the development of general weakness and other symptoms of intoxication of the body.
Panniculitis - recurring subcutaneous inflammationtissue, having a nodular character. With this disease in the fatty tissue rounded painful nodes are formed, which quickly increase their size up to 3-5 cm, squeezing the muscles and provoking the occurrence of pain in them. The skin over such nodes is red and swollen. These eruptions are always quite abundant, and are able to merge together with a close arrangement.
Panniculitis nodes can be observed from 1-2weeks to months, and sometimes years. After their disappearance, small depressions remain, as well as atrophied and darkened skin. Sometimes there is a disintegration of such nodes with their subsequent opening, and the release of oily liquid. Later, on the site of the exposed node, slowly healing ulceration is formed.In addition to muscle pain and the appearance of nodes, panniculitis is manifested by the following symptoms:
- loss of appetite;
- nausea and vomiting.
Pain in leg muscles in obese people
The cause of pain in the muscleslower limbs may be obesity. If a person is overweight, then an additional load falls on the lower limbs, and they experience increased pressure. This inevitably leads to pain in the muscles of the legs, especially with small foot sizes.
- In case of vascular pathologies, it is necessary to limit the content of fatty, cholesterol-rich foods in your diet.
- It will be useful to lose weight, as well as regularly perform a special set of exercises aimed at preventing the development of varicose veins.
- Try to avoid a long stay instatic, sitting or standing position. If your activity requires it, you should regularly take breaks, warm ups, and change your body position.
- For diseases of the spine or joints, you need to pay attention to the timely treatment of these pathologies, and the implementation of the recommendations of the doctor.
- Periodic exercises aimed at strengthening the muscles of the abdomen, will lead to the removal of muscle tension in the lower back, which reduces the likelihood of radiating pain from the lower back.
Before use, consult a specialist.