Peripheral edema symptoms
Edema is an abnormal, excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues that surround the cells of the body.
Dogs have edema of two types:
- peripheral (swelling of the subcutaneous tissue and skin),
- internal (edema of the brain, lungs, etc.)
Peripheral edema is noticeable with the naked eye. It can occur in one place or spread throughout the body. Internal swelling can be recognized only by certain symptoms. The swelling itself is not a disease, but a symptom of some disease.
He points out that excess liquid has come out of the vessels. Therefore for successful treatment it is necessary to search for the cause of edema.
Causes of Edema in Dogs
Local asymmetric edema on different partsbodies can occur as a result of injuries. local inflammation due to infection, allergic reaction, injection of a large amount of fluid, squeezing of limbs, bites of poisonous animals or as a reaction to medicinal substances.
In older dogs, they can arise as a result ofarthrosis of the extremities, which is aggravated with increasing physical exertion. On the neck and muzzle, Quincke's edema can occur, as a reaction to food or chemical intoxication, as well as to a reptile or insect bite. This is a very dangerous condition, as a result of which the dog must be rushed to the veterinary clinic.
Symmetric edema indicates a worseningvenous outflow as a result of heart failure, increased hydrostatic venous pressure. They arise when the oncotic blood pressure decreases as a result of loss of proteins in kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, nephrotic syndrome), prolonged bleeding, enteropathy.
The reason may be a decrease in the formation of protein in fasting and liver diseases (cirrhosis), increased capillary permeability in intoxications, infections, allergies in dogs.
Treatment of edema in dogs
Treatment of edema can only besymptomatic, aimed at rapid relief of the animal's condition. It depends on the nature of the edema, so it is very important to recognize its cause and treat the underlying disease. If swelling is the result of trauma or local inflammation, then most often used antiseptics and antibiotics.
To edema of joint and paw tissues with a significantThe load can lead to chronic joint damage (arthrosis). If the edema occurs at the site of the insect bite, but the general condition of the animal has not worsened, it is sufficient to treat the bite site with an antiseptic. Quincke edema on the muzzle or neck is a symptom of allergy. Antihistamines such as suprastin, diphenhydramine are rarely effective for dogs.
The first help is recoverypatency of the airways with the help of adrenaline. Used and steroid hormones (dexamethasone or prednisolone), at all stages of depressing allergic reactions. With symptoms of Quincke's edema (sudden edema of the muzzle, reddening or blanching of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, rapid breathing, vomiting in the dog), it is especially important not to experiment with drugs, but as soon as possible to take the animal to the clinic.
Edema due to low blood albuminis diagnosed when measuring the level of total protein and albumin (biochemical blood test). A low level of albumin can be corrected by full nutrition and the introduction of intravenous human albumin. This kind of peripheral edema is only a symptom and if there are no additional symptoms that indicate the loss of protein by the body (dog diarrhea and malnutrition), then the internal organs (kidneys, liver) should be examined: ultrasound, biochemical blood test, general urine analysis.
In the fight against peripheral edema can alsohelp transfusion of colloidal solutions (infukol, refortan) and careful use of diuretics. When edema associated with kidney damage is prescribed diuretics (eufillin, furosemide), as well as glucocorticoids and salt-free diet.
Dogs rarely have peripheraledema due to chronic heart failure. Nevertheless, when an animal develops edema, the doctor should form an opinion on the work of the heart, probing the pulse, examining the mucous membranes. If the diagnosis is confirmed, then cardiac glycosides (digitoxin), potassium preparations and diuretics (furosemide) are used for the removal of edema.
Rarely do dogs have localedema due to impaired lymphatic and venous outflow. More often such an edema appears, if, for example, in the dog's foot there is an intravenous catheter for a long time. Then it is necessary to loosen the patch, which fixes the catheter. Often there is swelling of the paws after removal of breast tumors, and with them and removal of axillary or inguinal lymph nodes.
Pulmonary edema in dogs is one of the most dangerous conditions in which fluid accumulates in the alveoli of the lungs. Often it develops lightning fast and puts underthreatening the life of an animal. Its causes can be heart disease (myocarditis, vices, etc.) and pathological conditions such as shock, pneumonia, gas poisoning and others. Treatment is prescribed only by the doctor, based on the cause that caused the swelling.