Swelling of the fetus causes

  • Swelling of the whole body.
  • The accumulation of fluid in all cavities of the body (especially in the abdominal and pleural (a slot-like space between the thin membranes covering the lung), as well as in the cavities of the brain, the heart).
  • Anemia.
  • Hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver).
  • Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).
  • Pale skin.
  • Disturbance of breathing (frequent, superficial, may be absent).
  • Immune hydrops: is a severe form of hemolytic disease of the fetus. Currently, it is rare to find a timely diagnosis and start treatment.
  • Non-immune dropsy: is considered the outcome of some heavyintrauterine diseases (heart diseases, hereditary and chromosomal diseases, congenital infections). The reason is difficult to establish, the forecast is unfavorable: in most cases it ends lethal (deadly).
Immune dropsy.
  • Hemolytic disease of the fetus. arising from isoserological incompatibility.
Non-immune dropsy.
  • Most often, its cause is unknown.
  • Among the possible reasons are:
    • chromosomal diseases (for example, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome);
    • pathology of the heart (eg, congenital rhythm disturbances, heart structure disorders);
    • infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy (syphilis, cytomegalovirus infection, etc.).

LookMedBook reminds: the sooner you seek help from a specialist, the more chances to keep health and reduce the risk of complications:

  • Analysis of the mother's life history: transferred infectious diseases, surgical interventions, chronic diseases.
  • Analysis of obstetric-gynecological history: transferred gynecological diseases, features of the course and outcomes of previous pregnancies, etc.
  • Analysis of the course of this pregnancy: the total weight gain for pregnancy, whether pregnancy occurred, was accompanied by complications (toxicosis, gestosis, threatened miscarriage), etc.
  • When ultrasound of the fetus is detected:
    • swelling of the placenta (child's place);
    • polyhydramnios (excess amniotic fluid) in most cases;
    • increase in the size of the fetus due to edema (especially increasing the size of the abdomen relative to the size of the head);
    • accumulation of fluid in all cavities of the fetus;
    • swelling of subcutaneous fat (a layer under the skin, represented mainly by fat tissue).
  • A blood test of the fetus and the mother for the blood group and Rh factor for determining the shape of dropsy.
With an immune dropsy:
  • intrauterine transfusion to the fetus of the Rh-negative blood of the corresponding group (as in the mother);
  • Pre-delivery equipment for cardiopulmonary resuscitation is being prepared;
  • Immediately after birth, resuscitation and pericardiocentesis are performed (a procedure consisting in piercing a pericardial sac and removing accumulated fluid from it);
  • Removal of fluid from all the cavities of the body, where it accumulated, with the help of needles and catheters (tubules).

With non-immune dropsy:
  • Even before birth, the equipment for cardiopulmonary resuscitation is being prepared;
  • Immediately after birth, resuscitation and pericardiocentesis are performed (a procedure consisting in piercing a pericardial sac and removing accumulated fluid from it);
  • Removal of fluid from all the cavities of the body, where it accumulated, with the help of needles and catheters (tubules).
  • Respiratory failure.
  • Cardiovascular failure (reduction of the effective contractile function of the heart, leading to violations of intracardiac and pulmonary circulation and cardiac overload).
  • Lethal (fatal) outcome (in most cases).

Prevention is possible only from the side of a pregnant woman.

  • Pregnancy planning and timely preparation for it (detection and treatment of gynecological and chronic diseases before pregnancy).
  • Timely registration of the pregnant woman in the account in the female consultation (before 12 weeks of pregnancy).
  • Regular visit to the obstetrician-gynecologist (once a month in the 1st trimester, once in 2-3 weeks in the 2nd trimester and once in 7-10 days in the 3rd trimester).

With an immune dropsy.
  • The introduction of an immunoglobulin mother (a special protein,involved in the immune response of the body) to prevent the mother from producing antibodies that destroy the red blood cells of the fetus. It is carried out during pregnancy after the detection of Rh-conflict.
With non-immune dropsy.
  • Since the cause is very rarely found, there is no specific prevention.

Visual obstetrics and gynecology - Errol R. Norvitz, John O. Shorge - 2003
Neonatology. Volume 2 - Shabalov N.P. - 2004
Neonatology. National leadership - Volodin NN - 2008