The concern of obstetricians with the high weight gain of a pregnant woman is not due to concern about her appearance, but about the health of mom and baby.
Often the question: "How much can and should a woman put on weight for pregnancy?" Many respond correctly, about 10-12 kg. But it happens, so some add 20 kg or more. Women are indignant: "Why do we constantly weigh in the women's consultation, what difference does the doctor have, what kind of figure will I have after my birth?" And in general, a woman during pregnancy should eat whatever she wants. And then the baby will not get the right nutrients. " Here also it is necessary often to explain to doctors, that pathological increase in weight - one of early signs of a serious pathology under the name "gestosis".
Gestosis - a disease that occurs only in pregnant women and usually passes a few days after childbirth. Gestosis about a third of expectant mothers suffer. About how dangerous this disease is, says statistics: for many years it is firmly in the top three causes of maternal mortality in Russia.
Gestosis It starts only after the 16-20th weekpregnancy, and is most often detected in the third trimester (after 28 weeks). It arises because of changes in the body of the pregnant woman, as a result of which substances are formed in the placenta, capable of making microwires in the vessels. Through these "holes" from the blood in the tissue penetrate plasma protein and liquid, therefore, edema is formed. They, at first still invisible to the eye, and can be detected during weighing.
"Holes" are formed in the vessels of the kidneys, sothrough them, the protein enters the urine. The more "holes", the more a woman loses a protein, the more serious the disease. Therefore, so often the doctor appoints the future mother a general analysis of urine. This allows you to diagnose and begin treatment as early as possible.
Since the fluid has left the vessels, the bodyyou have to increase blood pressure to pump the remaining liquid through the body. There is a third symptom of gestosis - high blood pressure. Because of the thickening of the blood, its coagulability increases, which can lead to blood clots.
Gestosis is cunning. The woman feels healthy for a long time. Well, think about it, you gained excess weight, you found the protein in your urine, the pressure rose for some reason. But the head does not hurt, and the kidneys do not bother. So everything's all right? But in reality it is not so. Not only the hands, legs, face, but also the placenta (which leads to a lack of oxygen in the fetus), and eventually the brain (which can lead to a seizure) swell.
In this case, the symptoms (headache, nausea,flickering "flies" before the eyes, drowsiness, blocking, pain in the stomach) appear within a few hours, and sometimes minutes before the onset of seizures, which can kill the life of both the mother and the child.
This condition is called pre-eclampsia, and itselfconvulsive attack - eclampsia. The danger is that against a background of such a convulsive condition, heart attack, stroke, pulmonary edema, placental retinal detachment and retina, renal and hepatic insufficiency develop. And all this is very fast and - a seemingly healthy and young woman.
That's why doctors of women's clinics spend so much time on prevention and timely diagnosis gestosis in pregnant women .
With a large increase in weight and no visibleedema doctor may suggest you put a trial of McLaur-Aldrich (MKO test): enter subcutaneously saline and note the time for which the papule will resolve. If faster than 35 minutes, then you have hidden swelling. By the way, if it becomes difficult for you to bend your fingers, they become numb, they do not get caught on rings - it's nothing but swelling of your hands.
If you have only showed small swelling of your legs, thenthe doctor will prescribe outpatient treatment. The hands and face also swelled, and in addition, the protein in the urine showed up, the pressure increased? Urgent need to go to the hospital! Sometimes the condition of the expectant mother may worsen in a few days. Do not self-medicate. Sometimes drugs taken by moms can only aggravate the situation. Especially it concerns diuretics (diuretics).
Many women think that in the presence of edemadiuretics will help to remove excess fluid from the body. But in fact in the vessels and so very little fluid, she went into the fabric! In this case, the use of diuretics sharply aggravates the course of the disease.
Weighing the woman, examining her, measuring blood pressure and revealing the protein in the urine (in the second half of pregnancy, she is given before each appearance in the women's consultation). True, with gestosis all three symptoms will not necessarily be present, more often one or two are observed.
Who is at risk?
- Women who first become mothers;
- waiting for twins;
- ladies after 35 years;
- mummies with chronic diseases (vegetovascular dystonia, obesity, diabetes, hypertension or chronic pyelonephritis);
- having sexual infections (chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis).
How can you resist gestosis?
Fight with excess weight!
It is clear that a pregnant woman should receivehigh-grade food. However, many women interpret this truth as follows: "You can eat anything you want." And even the most persistent and always watching the figure begin to eat everything in a row and in unlimited quantities, sincerely believing that it will be better for the child. But as a result, everything ends in obesity and gestosis .
The most important thing that a growing child needs,is a protein necessary for the construction of cells in its body. Therefore, the basis of the diet of the future mother should be food rich in protein: meat of low-fat varieties (veal, beef and chicken), fish, cottage cheese, eggs.
If gestosis has already appeared, the need to take protein food becomes even more important, because, as we have already explained, through the "holes" in the blood vessels the protein from the blood goes into the tissues, and is also lost in the urine.
But sweet must be limited - preferablydo not eat muffin, candy, ice cream. It is better to give preference to fruits, since they are now available all year round. Do not forget about fiber. The feeling of saturation arises from the filling of the gastrointestinal tract. Refined food does not contain enough fiber, which fills the stomach, but it is not absorbed.
Another positive aspect: fiber - excellent prevention of constipation. Most of it is contained in vegetables (beets, carrots), fruits and dried fruits, mushrooms (better store and not collected in the neighboring forest), sea kale, bran, greens. There are also pharmacy products, such as microcellulose.
How much can a future mother add?
- Starting from 28 weeks of pregnancy, the expectant mother should recover on average 350 grams, but not more than 500 g per week.
- By the end of pregnancy, weight gain should not exceed 12 kg.
- The exception is women with an initial deficit in weight, for example, with a height of 170 cm weighing 53 kg. Such mummies can add 2-3 kg more than normal without harm to health.
- On the contrary, women with an initial overweight should not add more than 10 kg.
Do not get carried away by liquid and salt.
If you add a lot of weight, do not lean on pickled cucumbers, herring and sauerkraut. In this case, the liquid should be limited to 1-1.5 liters per day, including soup and juicy fruit.
Lead an active lifestyle.
Have you noticed that full women of childbearingage is getting smaller? Now the birth can not serve as an excuse: "I grew fat, because I gave birth." Any woman knows that in order to be in good shape, you need only your own desire, the right balanced diet and moderate exercise. The best types of physical activity for pregnant women are long walks, swimming, pilates and yoga.
It is believed that the outflow of urine is alsopromotes the development of gestosis. The fact is that in the standing position the uterus squeezes the ureters, and the outflow of urine is disturbed. To prevent this from happening, doctors recommend that mothers take the knee-elbow position 3-4 times a day for 10 minutes. For convenience, you can put a pillow under your chest and read in such a pose a book or magazine. This improves the flow of urine from the kidneys.
For prevention of edema suitable for kidney tea, rose hips, leavescranberries, bearberry, cranberry mors. These drugs have a weak diuretic effect. If you buy a kidney fee at a pharmacy, note whether there is a half-pala in it (erva woolly). The fact that it is able to destroy the stones in the kidneys, the liver, but at the same time and teeth. Therefore, such a collection should be drunk through a tube, and then rinse your mouth.
An alternative to herbal teas can beherbal medicines: kanefron, cystone, cystenal. Many doctors in women's clinics prescribe various drugs for prevention and treatment of edema, for example, magnesium preparations (Magne-B6, magnerot), vitamin E and lipoic acid (help prevent the formation of "holes" in blood vessels), hofitol (helps the liver to inactivate substances that destroy blood vessels ), kurantil (not only improves blood circulation in the placenta, but also helps prevent gestosis and even ... influenza).
Women with edema, mild to moderategestosis are treated in the department of pathology of pregnant women. If gestosis is severe, and even more so, there are signs of pre-eclampsia (pre-convulsive condition) or the patient has undergone an eclampsic (convulsive) attack, then the treatment is carried out in intensive care intensive care unit. The survey plan usually includes:
- blood tests (general, biochemical, coagulogram - definition of coagulation;
- urine tests (total, daily protein loss, Zimnitsky's assay);
- evaluation of the fetus (ultrasound, cardiotocography and dopplerometry);
- Consultation of the therapist, the oculist, at serious forms of a gestosis - the neurologist is obligatory.
Treatment consists in the use of an infusiontherapy (droppers), the purpose of which is to fill the lack of fluid in the vascular bed and withdraw it from the tissues, and also to compensate for the loss of protein. If the pressure is increased, appropriate antihypertensive drugs are selected.
The duration of inpatient treatment depends on the degree of severity gestosis. When swelling - about a week, and when gestosis light degree - up to two. The best treatment of preeclampsia - this is a delivery, because it is pregnancy, to be exact - the placenta becomes the cause of its development.
Therefore, if the treatment is ineffective for 3 days with a severe degree gestosis and for 3 hours with pre-eclampsia (if symptoms appear), the pregnant woman undergoes a cesarean section.
Diet for edema of pregnant women
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