Most women endure pregnancy easily, but there are those for whom carrying a child is associated with a risk of losing health, I sometimes and life. This is observed in about 12 - 27% of expectant mothers.
Functional mismatch of all systemsof a woman's body to the needs of the fetus in late pregnancy is called gestosis, that is, the woman's body can not cope with the task of providing the fetus with nutrients and oxygen, and this condition is associated with the onset of pregnancy.
The gestosis of pregnant women was formerly called late toxicosis or dropsy. It is observed after the 20th week of pregnancy and can continue for another 2-3 weeks after childbirth.
To date, the causes of gestosis inpregnant women have not been fully studied, there are several theories: endocrine (the influence of hormones), immunological (the reaction of the mother's body to the fetus), genetic and corticovisceral. None of these theories can explain 100% of all the processes that arise during gestosis of pregnant women.
But the changes that occur in the body whengestosis, studied well. Under the influence of toxic substances damage to the walls of the vessels is observed, the liquid part of the blood together with the protein "leaves" in the tissue, so there are swelling.
Kidneys are an organ where there are a lot of blood vessels, the protein gets into urine through them. This phenomenon is called proteinuria.
As a result of reducing the amount of circulating blood in the vessels, their narrowing (spasm) occurs, which leads to an increase in blood pressure.
With spasm of blood vessels there is an oxygenstarvation of all organs, the most "needy" in it are the kidneys, liver and brain, in the pregnant woman, the placenta should be added to this list. As a result, not only the mother's body suffers, but also the fetus, hypoxia and developmental delay occur.
To date, there are severalclassifications of gestosis pregnant, they are all designed for the convenience of doctors. From the correct diagnosis and the severity of gestosis during pregnancy depends on the tactics of management and treatment.
There are three main symptoms of gestosis:
- increase in blood pressure.
Gestosis in a pregnant woman can manifest with one symptom, but it is possible and their combination.
The presence of all three symptoms doctors call nephropathy. And in classifications it is called preeclampsia (divided into 3 degrees of severity).
There are pure gestosis and combined, i.e., (pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension), moreover, the combined forms are manifested until 20 weeks (early gestosis), leaking more difficult compared with late gestosis.
The most severe and threatening condition is eclampsia - a convulsive state, which doctors try not to admit.
ETERNALS - the earliest symptom of gestosis, whichthe woman herself may notice. They can be light, affecting only the legs, and can be visible on the face. Swelling is also observed with a normally ongoing pregnancy, so do not panic from the beginning.
It is necessary to be weighed regularly, should(too much 0.5 kg per week), because swelling can be not only obvious, but also hidden (the abdominal wall swells, and the abdominal enlargement is treated incorrectly).
PREEKLAMPPSY (nephropathy) - gestosis, which combines swelling, proteinuria (protein in the urine) and increased blood pressure.
Distinguish the mild degree (AD-150/90 mm Hg. protein in urine up to 1.0 g / l, swelling only visible on the legs), medium degree (AD-170/100 mm Hg protein in urine 1.0-3.0 g / l, leg edema occurs and abdominal wall), severe degree (AD-more than 170/100 mm Hg protein in more than 3.0 g / l, swollen legs, abdominal wall and face) nephropathy.
Objectively, a woman feels a headache, nausea, there may be vomiting, heaviness in the occipital region and a disturbance of the psyche.
The blood pressure level should be measured in dynamics andcompare with the original value, and, pay attention to the diastolic pressure, it reflects the spasm of blood vessels. The small difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (less than 30 mm Hg) is a poor prognostic sign and requires hospitalization.
ECLAMPSIA - the most severe manifestation of gestosispregnant, at which there are convulsions of the whole body. Dangerous fluctuations in blood pressure at this time, because it leads to rupture of cerebral vessels (stroke), placental abruption, followed by hypoxia and fetal death. A pregnant woman may experience acute respiratory failure (shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, agitation).
The course of gestosis can be prolonged with minor symptoms, but sometimes it develops within a few days before the state of eclampsia. In both cases, hypoxia of the fetus occurs.
In order to diagnose gestosis to a womanit is necessary to determine the protein for a general analysis and biochemical analysis of urine, to determine the protein in daily urine, to check the platelet count and the state of the entire blood coagulation system.
To detect edema will help control the body weight, inNorm, if there is no gestosis, in the second half of pregnancy a woman adds 350 grams per week (not more than 500 grams). You can also follow the amount of liquid drunk and excreted (in the form of urine).
About the level of blood pressure and the state of the vascular system, you canjudged by the pressure measured on two hands (with gestosis, there is a difference on the two extremities). A valuable diagnostic examination will be an oculist examination of the fundus and an ultrasound examination of the fetus to detect hypoxia.
Each pregnant woman gives blood and urine,weighs and regularly measures blood pressure. But the most careful attention on the part of doctors is exposed to women at risk for developing gestosis, including primogenitors, women with multiple pregnancies, late pregnancies over 35, women with sexual infections and chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, pyelonephritis, arterial hypertension).
Treatment of gestosis consists in restoringnormal state of health of women. The most important rules for the development of gestosis in the second half of pregnancy is the timely access to a doctor and the absence of any self-treatment. Only the doctor knows how to treat gestosis, because taking certain medicines can only exacerbate the already difficult condition of the pregnant woman and the fetus.
For example, to get rid of edema, somebegin to drink diuretics, but the cause of edema in gestosis is the pathological vascular permeability, and not the excess fluid, so the condition worsens even more.
With mild forms of gestosis, it is possible to perform allprescriptions of the doctor at home. But with a severe course of gestosis, it is better to be under the supervision of specialists in the hospital, where they will promptly provide medical assistance (lower blood pressure, relieve cramps).
Important in the treatment of gestosis is and on timecarried out delivery, because gestosis - a condition caused by pregnancy. If the condition of a pregnant woman worsens or fetal hypoxia is severe, the absence of the effect of therapy is the only true solution. With mild gestosis, it is possible to have a child naturally, but in this case there is a risk of deterioration during exercise, when the load on the body of a woman is greatly increased.
The most common cesarean section. especially when there is eclampsia, stroke, retinal detachment, renal or hepatic insufficiency in the parturient woman.
Preventive maintenance of gestosis is an important point during pregnancy, since it is not possible to cure the whole disease, it remains only to prevent deterioration of the condition. The most important thing is to find out in time.
Every responsible woman must regularlypass the weighing, control measurement of blood pressure, take urine for protein content. Even with a normal current pregnancy, it is important to eat properly with protein and fiber predominance, reduced fat and flour content, also a long stay in the fresh air, walking. And with gestosis, these activities are vitally important not only to the future mother, but also to the little man inside her, since this improves the blood supply of tissues and reduces hypoxia.
Thus, from the development of gestosis is not insurednobody, but you can protect yourself from formidable complications. To do this, it is enough to take care of yourself and feel responsible for your health and the health of your child.