Swelling of the mucosa in the maxillary sinus
Sinusitis Is an inflammation of the maxillary (maxillary) paranasal sinus, which appears as a complication in acute influenza, runny nose and many other infectious diseases.
Sinusitis can be caused by a lot of reasons. Consider the main ones:
1. Bacterial and viral infections.
Calling sinusitis can almost all viruses,capable of hitting the upper respiratory tract, in one word, pathogens ARVI. Epithelium of the respiratory tract and paranasal sinuses are very similar, so the disease also affects this part of the respiratory tract during ARD.
Coryza and acute rhinitis is a consequence oflesions of the nasal mucosa, and sinusitis with discharge of fluid due to the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses. Viral infections lead to acute forms of sinusitis and never to chronic infections. But the bacterial infection provokes chronic sinusitis. It is often found that a viral infection is replaced by a bacterial infection. In children, sinusitis is often caused by chlamydia or mycoplasmal infections. This fact must be taken into account in the treatment (especially in children), since not all antibiotics act on the causative agent.
2. Diseases of the ENT organs.
Sinusitis can develop as a result of chronicor acute rhinitis due to the complete closure of the outmath of the maxillary sinus. It is through him cleansing and drainage of the sinus. Edema of the nasal mucosa - that's the reason for the blockage. Therefore, in the treatment of acute rhinitis (rhinitis), it is necessary to use vasoconstrictive drugs, which simultaneously remove the swelling of the nasal mucosa and eliminate the common cold, resulting in the purification of the maxillary sinus and protection from inflammation.
Chronic pharyngitis and chronic tonsillitis can also become sources of infection for the development of sinusitis.
3. Curvature of the nasal septum.
Sinusitis can occur for this reason because ofviolation of drainage and ventilation of the maxillary sinus. The genyantritis, which has arisen because of the curvature of the nasal septum, requires prolonged treatment, since very often there are relapses after it. However, the problem of sinusitis, which appears for this reason is solved by an operation, during which the normal structure of the nasal septum is restored.
4. Diseases of the teeth can cause the development of sinusitis, if from a sick tooth, the infection spreads directly into the maxillary sinus.
Sinusitis in children 5 to 6 years old occurs most oftenas a complication of rhinitis (rhinitis). With age, the risk of developing sinusitis is significantly increased. In children of an earlier age, the maxillary sinuses are not yet highly developed, so they rarely encounter sinusitis.
III. Clinical manifestations of sinusitis (symptoms of sinusitis)
Symptoms of sinusitis are very diverse, so it is not always possible to determine the inflammation of the maxillary sinus.
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults:
1. Nasal breathing is difficult
Stuffy nose. The voice becomes nasal. Usually occurs full nasal congestion. However, there is a variable stuffiness, then the right, then the left half. Nasal breathing is difficult at all times or with periodic relief.
Most patients have purulent or mucous discharge from the nose. If the nose is laid, this symptom is not observed.
3. Pains in the nose and near-nasal region
In the morning they are not so pronounced, and in the evening they become stronger. Over time, pain in the head begins to appear.
4. Common signs of intoxication
For maxillary sinusitis, as for most infectious diseases, a fever, weakness, reduced efficiency, lethargy is characteristic.
Symptoms of sinusitis directly depend on the phase of the disease (acute or chronic sinusitis).
Characteristic symptoms of acute sinusitis:
- pain in the infraorbital fossa (the area between the upper lip and the lower edge of the orbit)
- pain in the forehead region
- nasal congestion
Characteristic symptoms of chronic sinusitis:
- dull pain in the infraorbital area
- chronic nasal congestion (usually one-sided)
- headache (calming down when taking a prone position)
- dry chronic cough
In chronic sinusitis, the signs are weaker than in the acute.
Symptoms of sinusitis in children:
- lethargy, capriciousness, weakness
- elevated body temperature
- sleep and appetite disorders
- difficulty in nasal breathing and impaired sense of smell
- abundant discharge from the nose
Little children often can not tell wherethey are hurting, therefore, from moms and dads, there should be close attention to them. If you notice a child showing signs of sinusitis, immediately consult a doctor.
In genyantritis, all of the listed symptoms are not necessarily observed.
Diagnosis of sinusitis is implieddiagnosis on the basis of data obtained with a full examination of the patient clinical and paraclinical methods of diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis means finding out what the patient is complaining about (headache, nasal congestion, cough, pain in the projection of the maxillary sinus, etc.), examination of the patient - detection of reflex dilatation of the vessels of the infraorbital skin (red spots), examination of the nasal mucosa, its upper surface (for the presence of edema, inflammation, purulent discharge from the outlet of the maxillary sinus).
One of the most convenient instrumental methodsdiagnosis of sinusitis - this is the x-ray of the paranasal sinuses. In the picture, the inflammation of the maxillary sinus (sinusitis) can be seen as a blackout (white light) of the sinus image. If the person is healthy, the intensity of the color will be the same, as in the maxillary sinus, and at the orbit. X-rays are the most convenient and affordable method of diagnosis, but still the sensitivity is limited - this applies mainly to children (changes in the image of the maxillary sinus in children can be seen in rhinitis).
Puncture of the maxillary sinus is the most informativemethod of diagnosis of sinusitis. It is carried out as follows: a doctor with a special needle pierces the walls of the maxillary sinus, and then sucks its contents with a syringe. This procedure is quite simple and does not cause discomfort in patients with proper performance. However, despite all the advantages, puncture is rarely used, only in the case when other methods of diagnosis have not produced a result. After the puncture, the following complications are possible: the formation of emphysema of the orbit or cheek, abscess or phlegmon of the orbit, embolism of the blood vessels. It is possible complications that hinder the wide application of this procedure, although with proper implementation, the probability of their occurrence is negligible.
The treatment of sinusitis should be based on the fight against the swelling of the nasal mucosa, resulting in a good outflow from the sinus.
Treatment of sinusitis consists in the use of medical and surgical methods.
Drug treatment should primarily mean the use of local procedures, such as the use of sprays, drops and inhalers, which can eliminate mucosal edema.
Of the vasoconstrictive drugs can be identified: Nazivin, Tizin, Sanorin, For the nose, Nazol. With sinusitis, therapeutic fluids should be administered in the nose according to certain rules.
The patient should lie on his side, then dripDrops in one half of the nose, in the one on whose side it lies. Drops should fall precisely on the side wall of the nose. On this side, it is necessary to lie for at least 5 minutes after the procedure. Then you need to turn to the other side and do the same thing, but in the other half of the nose. Drops that have antibacterial and analgesic effect, can be used only after the use of vasoconstrictive drugs.
When treating sinusitis, do not forget aboutantibacterial and antihistamine preparations. Also, washing the nose with an antiseptic solution gives a good effect. In the treatment of sinusitis, physiotherapy is necessary, such as ultrasound of the nasal cavity, UHF on the paranasal sinuses.
For greater effect from complex treatmentyou can take homeopathic medicines. They contribute to enhancing the protective properties of the body. Homeopathic preparations reduce inflammatory processes, change the nature of secretion, stimulate the immune system.
Puncture of the maxillary sinus (puncture of the maxillary sinus) .
Puncture is necessary for pumping pus fromsinus, after which the sinus is washed, and anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are administered. Despite the unpleasant sensations during the procedure, its effectiveness is very high. In our time, after a puncture in the sinus, catheters are installed, with the help of which it is possible to wash the sinuses every day. The use of this method contributes to the rapid recovery of the patient. However, for puncture, indications are needed, so in the initial stage of sinusitis it is seldom performed, it is enough to confine oneself to washing the nose.
So, the main methods of treatment of sinusitis are:
1. Treatment with antibiotics, which helps suppress infection and stop the spread of microbes. When choosing antibiotics, it is necessary to consider the sensitivity of microbes to them, otherwise there will be no effect from treatment.
2. Treatment with local antimicrobial and immunostimulating sprays that help fight infection.
3. Treatment with nasal vasoconstrictors, helping to restore the natural drainage of the maxillary sinus.
4. If the above methods are ineffective, puncture is performed by draining and rinsing the maxillary sinuses.
5. If you suspect a secondary nature of sinusitis, it is necessary to treat the primary focus of the infection, such as chronic tonsillitis, a sick tooth, chronic rhinitis.
Treatment of sinusitis in children
Treatment in children should be started as soon as possiblebefore. It is important to remember that if a child has a cold, then he needs to warm up not only his nose, but also for prevention, the area of the projections of the maxillary sinuses. Continually vysmarkivatsya. If a child has a cold, and he also complains of a headache, you must immediately turn to the ENT - the doctor. After that, if the doctor makes a diagnosis - a sinusitis, then most likely he will appoint a complex treatment (antibiotics, vasoconstrictors in the nose, sulfonamide drugs inside, physiotherapy, possibly puncture of the maxillary sinuses, with their subsequent washing and the introduction of drugs into the sinuses). While the treatment is being carried out, the patient must always observe bed rest. The nutrition of the child should be full and enriched with vitamins. Ambulatory treatment is possible in mild cases, if it does not give the desired result - hospitalization.
In the treatment of sinusitis it is recommended thatdiet. If the disease is in the acute stage, there is an increased temperature, it is best to give up solid food, and instead use it vegetable and fruit juices. Very useful carrot juice, beet juice, cucumber and spinach. To make a cocktail you need to take 100ml. juice of beetroot and cucumber or spinach, after which it is mixed with 300 ml. carrot juice. After taking the juice, you can gradually switch to a balanced diet, but you must refrain from eating fried foods, foods that contain starch and sugar, confectionery and flour products, white bread, pasta. Do not forget about garlic and onions.
VI. Treatment of sinusitis with folk remedies
Sinusitis can be treated with folk remedies, butmany people think: choose a traditional treatment or traditional? Folk treatment of sinusitis can be combined with the treatment recommended by your doctor. Treatment with folk remedies has both pluses and minuses. Firstly, people's treatment, can not give results, and you run the risk of running the disease. Secondly, treatment with folk remedies can cause side effects - burns of the mucous membrane, expansion of the vessels of the face, etc. Thirdly, people's treatment does not always cause positive emotions.
There are a large number of prescriptions for the treatment of sinusitis with folk remedies. Home treatment can be carried out in the following ways:
1. Lie on a pillow, tilt your head and drip into each nostril for 5 to 6 drops of melted butter. Do this in the morning and evening.
2. Apply to the maxillary sinuses hot eggs boiled in a steep and keep them until they cool.
3. Take in equal parts honey, aloe juice, celandine grass and mix. The resulting consistency is instilled into each nostril for 5 to 10 drops 3 to 4 times a day.
4. If the genyantritis is acute or chronic, then it is necessary to dig in the nose of sea buckthorn oil 6-7 times a day.
5. To inject honeycomb into 1 to 2 drops in each nostril, until you feel that home treatment results in relief.
6. Boil the water in a saucepan, add to it half a teaspoon of propolis tincture (30% alcohol). Above this pot, breathe the steam, pre-covered with a towel.
7. Take 2 tablespoons: St. John's wort, lavender spice, sage medicinal, chamomile, eucalyptus globular; on 1 spoon of a turn, a yarrow ordinary. Brew 3 tablespoons of this collection with two liters of boiling water, then take 6 times a day for 100 ml. In the evening, home treatment can be supplemented with inhalations 4 to 5 times every hour.
8. Folk remedies can be used to treat headaches, which are a consequence of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses. To do this, take fresh cyclamen juice and drip it 2 drops into both nostrils. The reaction will follow very quickly, within 5 minutes. Coughing begins, sneezing, intense fever, sweating. After that, green-yellow pus is secreted within 24 hours. Pus is the cause of headaches. Most people, at the end of everything, have a deep and long sleep and the disease gradually recedes.
9. With genyantritis the following folk remedy helps: boil water, add a tablespoon of honey to it, and then, covered with a towel, breathe one nostril, then another. 10 procedures are carried out.
10. Take 200g. spruce gum (pitted), 15g. copper sulfate, 50 g of olive oil and 1 onion, mix and bring to a boil, then cool. Ointment, which turned out to be applied to the mucous membrane of the nose. It gives a warming effect.
1. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
2. Physical education and sports
3. Rational balance of labor and rest
4. Being in the open air
If you take the rule and hold everything togetherthe above, then your body is able to prevent the development of diseases of the nose and lungs. It is necessary to treat the following diseases: ARVI, influenza and other colds, otherwise they can lead to the disease of sinusitis. In time, sanitize the oral cavity, eliminate changes in the nasal cavity that cause breathing disorders and prevent the outflow of the contents of the maxillary sinuses.
Good prevention and at the same time effectivetreatment provides massage in the area of the projections of the paranasal sinuses. During the massage, fresh blood comes to the paranasal sinuses, which gives warming to the area, which is massaged and helps to remove stagnant phenomena in the sinus.
The prognosis for acute maxillary sinusitis is favorable in most cases. Usually recovery occurs from a few days to a couple of weeks.
Prognosis for chronic sinusitis, if heoccurs without complications, too, is favorable and, as a rule, depends on the duration of the process and morphological changes. The prognosis in the presence of complications is entirely determined by the nature of the complication.