Swelling of the legs symptoms
Cardiovascular diseases are veryoften, are the most frequent causes of death. Every year the percentage of occurrence of cardiovascular pathologies in young people and people living in rural areas increases.
Cardiovascular diseases include a whole complex of ailments, in a separate group can be distinguished pathology of the vessels of the lower extremities.
The main causes of vascular diseases of the legs
Irrational nutrition. Eating lots of fried and fatty foods. Incorrect diet, eating foods that contain large amounts of cholesterol.
- Age features. Over the years, the risk of developing diseases of the vessels of the lower limbs is greatly increasing.
- Obesity. Excess weight is a burden on the entire body, the vessels of the legs are no exception.
- The consequence of nicotine. Nicotine adversely affects the vascular system, is capable of provoking an inflammatory process in the circulatory system.
- Frequent stress, psychological overstrain.
Classification of vascular diseases of the lower extremities
• Vascular obstruction
• Blockage of deep veins
Until recently, diseases related topathological conditions of the veins of the lower limbs, met in certain groups of people, such as: athletes, machine workers, sellers, guard militia - professions associated with prolonged stay on their feet. However, in our time, diseases are increasingly encountered among people who experience minimal stress on their legs due to their profession and way of life.
Obliterating diseases of the leg vessels includeyourself such a disease as atherosclerosis. It is a condition where there is a blockage of blood vessels due to the formation of cholesterol plaques on their walls. With the progression of the disease, the lumen of the vessel becomes less and less, until the lumen of the vessel is completely closed with a cholesteric plaque. As a result of a decrease in the lumen of the vessel, the blood supply deteriorates. Obliterating disease is more common in women than in men.
Symptoms that can signalthe development of atherosclerosis is a pain in the calf muscles during walking and its gain when climbing the stairs or exerting physical exertion, lameness, the development of dry gangrene. The disease develops against the background of impaired fat metabolism and is the main cause of the development of coronary heart disease.
Obliterating endarteritis of lower extremities
Endarteritis - a disease in which there areviolations in the structure of the walls of the joints, which leads to a narrowing of the vascular lumen and a decrease in the blood supply of tissues. Symptoms of this pathology: lameness, pain when walking, fatigue in the lower extremities, tingling and numbness in the legs, paleness and dryness of the cutaneous covering of the legs, edema, trophic ulcers.
Unambiguous cause of the disease is not clear, However, it is noted that the development of this disease has a great effect of the action of nicotine. Smoking people most often suffer from this ailment. Risk factors include the postoperative period in which the body is easily susceptible to the action of various diseases.
Obliterating arteritis is a disease thatoccurs almost exclusively in men, in women it is extremely rare. With the progression of pathology and the lack of proper treatment, the disease can cause amputation of the lower extremities. Arteritis is more often manifested at the age of 20-40 years, the pathological process undergoes the vessels of the feet and lower legs, while the obliterating disease affects in most cases large vessels.
Varicose veins - a disease, withwhich reduces the flexibility, elasticity of the veins. Over time, the veins are stretched and deformed. The pathological process occurs against the background of an incorrect operation of the valves of the venous system, leading to a reverse blood flow. Such a state can arise against the background of the absence or damage of the valves, as well as the result of hereditary defects. As a result of reverse blood throws, there is a local overflow of veins with blood and, as a consequence, their expansion. The disease is characterized by a slow course, the symptoms of the disease accrue over the years.
What are the symptoms of varicose veins?expansion of veins? First of all, the patient has a feeling of heaviness in the legs, fatigue of the lower extremities is observed, visually on the legs you can see the expansion of the subcutaneous veins.
In gastrocnemius muscles, convulsions may occur,which are more often disturbed at night. By the evening there are strong swelling of the feet, shins. The disease is very serious, since it can give complications of the following kind: development of severe bleeding, thrombophlebitis, the formation of skin ulcers and eczema.
Obstruction of the vessels of the lower extremities
The disease occurs against the background of pathologicalchanges in the walls of blood vessels. The cause of the obstruction can be thrombosis or embolism, as well as trauma to the arteries and squeezing them. For the obstruction of blood vessels are characterized by such symptoms as: sharp pain in the limbs and spasms not only of the injured limb, but also healthy. Predisposing factors for the development of vascular obstruction include: diabetes mellitus, the effect of nicotine, metabolic disorders, hypertension.
Blocking of deep veins of lower extremities
Occlusion of deep veins is observed against the background of the formation of a blood clot, which as a result can close the lumen of the vessel. Pathology is observed in 15-20% of all inhabitants of the planet. Symptoms: sharply developing edema of the legs, raising the temperature of the damaged lower limb, soreness.
Thrombophlebitis is the most common causereferral to a vascular doctor. Thrombophlebitis is called pathology, in which there is an acute venous thrombosis in combination with the inflammatory process of the venous wall and surrounding tissues. Inflammatory process with thrombophlebitis occurs without the participation of microorganisms. In most cases, thrombophlebitis occurs against the background of varicose veins. and in rare cases, the disease occurs in unmodified veins.
Thrombophlebitis often occurs in people older than 60 years. The provoking factors are: obesity, hormonal drugs, oncological pathologies, infectious diseases, pregnancy and childbirth, surgery. Most often thrombophlebitis with varicose enlargement affects the upper third of the shin and the lower part of the thigh. Symptoms of thrombophlebitis is the reddening of the skin in the projection of a pathologically altered vein, the appearance of a sharp pain when touching such a site. There may also be a slight deterioration in the general condition: fever and general malaise.
Obliterating diseases of the leg vessels need serious complex treatment. When diseases of the vessels of the lower extremities are prescribed:
→ use of compression linen
→ tonic gels, strengthening the walls of blood vessels
→ physical exercises aimed at improving blood circulation in the lower limbs.
→ treatment of the underlying disease that triggered the development of vascular pathology
→ drug treatment (statins, nicotinic acid, bile acid sequestrants)
Treatment of vascular disease directly depends oncause, which caused him and the stage of the disease. An important aspect of therapy is changing the patient's habitual way of life. First of all, the treatment is based on the observance of a proper diet, due to which it is possible to significantly lower the level of cholesterol in the blood. Therapeutic exercise has a beneficial effect on the course of the disease. It also requires a complete refusal to smoke and drink alcohol. If the disease was caused by hypodynamia, i.e. lack of proper muscle activity due to professional activity, the treatment should take into account the need for a change in occupation.
Nutrition in vascular diseases
Drug therapy can not give a proper result, without following a diet. Treatment should be aimed primarily at reducing excess weight, stabilizing the level of cholesterol in the blood.
It is necessary to limit the consumption of food products,rich in animal fats. The diet should necessarily include foods rich in fiber - vegetables and fruits. They improve intestinal activity, helping the body to excrete cholesterol.
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