Edema of the brain after surgery
Today in medical practice it is customary to allocatebenign and malignant brain tumors that differ in their cellular composition, degree of aggression, and a tendency to metastasize.
But even benign neoplasms aremalignant character, which can be explained by the small volume of the cranium, resulting in a clinical picture and the degree of disruption of vital functions, even from small tumor sizes: from barely noticeable to serious, not allowing a person to perform even the most elementary actions. It is for this reason that treatment should begin as soon as possible.
As practice shows, the only effectiveThe method of treating tumors of such localization is an operation. Thus from the surgeon it is required as much as possible radically, it is as much as possible possible to remove a tumor, without hitting healthy sites of a brain.
Thus, the operation is traumatic and not always possible, which may be due to the large size of the neoplasm or its location near or in vital parts of the brain.
The main methods of surgery to remove a tumor of the brain include:
- Trepanation of the skull;
- Endoscopic trepanation;
- Stereotactic trephination;
- Removal of fragments of the bones of the skull.
By trepanation of the skull, craniotomy, is meant a surgical operation that involves creating holes in the skull in order to gain access to the brain.
Craniotomy can be performed both under anesthesia and under local anesthesia, with the intervention lasting from 2 to 4 hours. At the moment there are several techniques for carrying out trepanation of the skull.
Thus, small holes are called trepanation holes, whereas operations conducted through such holes, operations "through the keyhole."
To a complex variant of craniotomy concernssurgery of the base of the skull, during which the part of the skull is removed that supports the lower part of the brain. This technique requires additional consultation of a plastic surgeon, an otologic surgeon and a surgeon of the neck and head.
The method involves the use of an endoscope, which is inserted through the special opening in the skull into the brain.
At the last stage of the operation, the tumor can be removed:
- Electric pincers;
- Ultrasonic suction device.
With stereotactic trepanation, the surgeon supplementsmethods of MRI examination and CT scanning, which allows to obtain a three-dimensional image of the brain, thus localizing the tumor. This procedure helps the doctor to distinguish healthy tissues from pathological ones. Sometimes stereotactic trepanation is supplemented with biopsy.
Removing fragments of the skull bones
In some cases, an operation is performed to removesome fragments of bones, during which, unlike other techniques, the skull flap upon completion of the operation does not fit into its place, but is removed forever.
Risks during the operation to remove brain tumors are standard, but are more likely to develop:
- Re-emergence of the tumor (due to incomplete removal);
- Carrying cancer cells to other parts of the brain;
- Damage to the brain (which will lead to loss of functions, for which the corresponding area of the brain is responsible);
- Damage to arterial or venous vessels of the brain, nerve fibers;
- Edema of the brain;
- Lead to death.
When carrying out operations on the brain, the riskthe development of intraoperative complications is always higher, which is due to the small volume of the skull, the duration of surgical interventions, the prolonged strain of the surgeon, obliged to work in one posture and under a microscope.
It must always be remembered that a successful operation is notguarantees the development of postoperative complications. Sometimes physicians have to face the fact that even after a successful surgical procedure with complete removal of the tumor, the lost functions are not restored.
Possible consequences of craniotomy include:
- Edema (swelling) of the brain;
- Cyst of the brain (formed at the site of a distant tumor, which in some cases confuses doctors who deal with the patient in the future);
- Infectious process in the brain (meningitis and encephalitis).
After trepanation of the skull, the patient is transferred to the intensive care unit for 24 hours, where the doctor on duty observes him round the clock.
On the second day the patient is transferred to the neurosurgical department. The average period of hospitalization is 2 weeks.
Early rehabilitation can prevent a deep disability of the patient and return a person to a normal life.
- Training in new skills;
- Social adaptation.
- Bandages are constantly changing;
- The scalp remains dry until the staples are removed;
- Hair can be washed only 2 weeks after the operation;
- During the three months should refrain from flights on the plane;
- It is forbidden to engage in boxing and rugby for a minimum of 12 months;
- It is forbidden to drink alcohol, as it can provoke a seizure and edema of the brain.
The forecast directly depends on the adequacy andtimeliness of diagnosis. In case of early diagnosis and successful operation, the five-year survival rate is 80%, whereas in late treatment this index is only 20%, which does not depend on the size and histological variant of the tumor.
Cost of an operation to remove a brain tumor
The price varies widely, depending on the technique of surgical intervention, technical equipment and anesthesia. The average cost is 15-25 thousand dollars.