Edema of the cervical spine
Work in the office, "rest" at the TV, lackphysical activity, malnutrition - the causes of a variety of diseases that have become particularly widespread at the end of the last century. One of them is osteochondrosis. More precisely, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis everyone experienced at least once. But if they seriously annoy and even interfere with living and working, they can and must be fought with. The doctor should be consulted if you are concerned:
- pain in the neck, extending to the nape, eye and ear area, shoulder girdle, and not disappearing even at night
- pain in the hands (shoulder, forearm, hand), which are amplified at the slightest load
- difficulty in the movements of the hands, hands, fingers, reducing their sensitivity and weakening of muscle strength
- neck tension and stiff neck in the morning
- feeling of "lying down" of the neck in the morning
- pain in the neck with tilts and turns of the head
- numbness, burning, tingling in the hands or feet
- recurrent pulsating pain in the neck and occipital region of the head
- headache. which begins in the nape and extends to the crown and temples
- dizziness, darkening in the eyes, fainting with a sharp turn of the head
- noise in ears
- decreased visual acuity and hearing
- numbness of tongue
- pain in the heart, the intensity of which depends on the position of the body and is not removed by nitroglycerin
- proliferation of connective tissue - "withers" - in the region of the cervical spine.
With degenerative changes in the spine(the intervertebral discs are reduced, the fibrous ring loses its elasticity), so-called radicular syndrome develops, and depending on the localization of the changes, certain symptoms appear. The number of cervical roots (eight) is greater than the number of cervical vertebrae (seven). The first pair of cervical roots leaves between the base of the skull and the first cervical vertebra (C1), the second - between the first and second vertebrae, etc. Thus, each cervical nerve emerges above the corresponding vertebra.
If the nerve root in the first cervical region is affectedvertebrae (C1), then sensitivity in the occipital region is disturbed, and the second (segment CI-II) has pain in the parietal and occipital regions. The lesion of the nerve root (C3) in the region of segment CII-III occurs rarely. In this case, there is pain and a decrease in sensitivity in that half of the neck, where the spinal nerve is impaired, the sensitivity of the tongue may be reduced, and speech impairment may occur.
Pain and decreased sensitivity in the foreleg andclavicle, hypotonus of the muscles of the head and neck (belt, trapezoid, lifting shoulder blade) occur with C4 lesion of the nerve root (segment CIII-IV). Respiratory disorders, hiccough and pain in the heart can also be associated with the spine of C4, since it has a diaphragmatic nerve. But this is also a fairly rare pathology.
Radicular syndrome at the level of the 5th vertebra(segment CIV-V) causes pain that extends to the shoulder, the outer surface of the shoulder. The deltoid muscle weakens, the sensitivity in the outer surface of the shoulder is disturbed. The most common violations are the cramping of the roots of C6 and C7 (segments CV-VI and CVI-VII). In the first case, the pain radiates from the neck to the scapula, forearm, the outer surface of the shoulder, the radial surface of the forearm to the thumb of the hand. Sensitivity is broken not only in these areas, but even in the skin. In the second case, the pain extends from the neck to the shoulder blade, the forearm, the back surface of the shoulder, the forearm surface to the rear surface of the II-IV fingers fingers. The skin in these areas also loses sensitivity.
When the spine of C8 (segment CVII-TI) is affected, thenpain and sensitivity disorder spreads from the neck along the back surface of the shoulder, along the elbow of the forearm to the little finger. In the little finger, the pain may not be felt, but the muscles in this finger are weakened
Osteochondrosis is degenerative-dystrophicloss of intervertebral discs in the spine. The cervical region is the most vulnerable part of the spine because it has a special structure and suffers from a weak muscular corset in the neck, as well as anatomically different structure of the cervical vertebrae, which are very closely adjacent to each other. Therefore, even with a slight strain on the neck, there is a displacement of the vertebrae, which leads to compression of the vessels and nerves. This is very dangerous, because in this department through the holes located in the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae, pass the vertebral arteries that participate in the blood supply to the brain. So any pinching of vertebrae is fraught with the most severe consequences.
Nerve root and vessel compression with cervicalosteochondrosis can cause disc displacement in the lateral and posterior-lateral directions, protrusion (the initial stage of disc herniation, in which the integrity of the disc is not broken, it only protrudes into the spinal canal) and hernial protrusion of the disk directed into the intervertebral canal.
Degenerative changes in which there areBony growths in the region of the joints of the spine with cervical osteochondrosis reduce the lumen of the intervertebral canal and squeeze the vascular-nervous structures passing there. The osteophytes that form on the sides of the vertebral bodies irritate the muscles, the muscles tense in response, increasing the pressure of the vertebrae on each other. At the same time, the height of the intervertebral disc decreases, exacerbating the pathological process. Expanded osteophytes directed towards the canal of the vertebral artery, squeeze it, causing cerebral circulatory failure even with a sharp turn of the head.
In addition, even if there are no physiological changes in the cervical spine yet, prolonged strained body position can lead to pain and numbness.
Until recently, it was the presence of cervical osteochondrosis that accounted for all the headaches of tension, dizziness.
As for the weather-dependent and morningpain, studies of foreign neurologists, conducted in the 1980s, showed that cervical osteochondrosis is not always its cause. They believe that this is an example of substituting a radiological diagnosis of a clinical diagnosis, the traditional medical error is the overdiagnosis of osteochondrosis, which in our time can be detected even in adolescents. Often the relationship between findings on the x-ray. MRI. CT and the named clinical manifestations do not exist. Under the headache of muscle tension, if it is meteodependent in nature and observed in the morning hours, understand neck and head pain caused by intracranial venous congestion. This can be easily verified by performing a duplex scan. The wrong diagnosis is wrong treatment, then the problem will be aggravated.
A person begins to feel the manifestationsosteochondrosis more often after 35 years, and the older it is, the more manifestations. But in recent years, more people aged 18 to 30 are complaining about neck pain. Causes - poor physical preparation, violation of posture and curvature of the spine, flat feet and excess weight. Most often, problems with the neck appear in those who work a lot at a computer or drives a car.
The main causes of early development of cervical osteochondrosis:
- hereditary (genetic) predisposition
- metabolic disorders in the body, infection, intoxication
- malnutrition (lack of trace elements, vitamins and fluids)
- trauma of the spine (bruises, fractures);
- violation of posture, curvature of the spine
- instability of segments of the spinal column
- adverse environmental conditions
- sedentary lifestyle
- work related to lifting weights
- work associated with frequent changes in the position of the body (by turns, flexion and extension, jerks)
- long stay in an uncomfortable position in thestanding, sitting, lying, when lifting and carrying weights, while performing any work that exerts a load on the cervical spine and the spine as a whole
- excessive physical activity in the undeveloped musculoskeletal system
- nervous overstrain, stress
- use of improper pillows during sleep.
When there is no strength to endure the pain, acceptanesthetizing from a home medicine chest ("Analgin", "Baralgin", "Tempalgin"). If these drugs do not help, you will have to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ("Nayz", "Ibuprofen", "Diclofenac"). However, these drugs have a negative effect on the gastrointestinal tract, so without consulting a doctor, they can be used only as an emergency measure. and then you should consult a specialist for advice. Reduce the intensity of pain can be, using anti-inflammatory analgesic ointments - Diclofenac, Butadion. Or warming and "distracting" - "Finalgon", "Capsicum", "Viprosal" (with snake venom), "Virapin" and "Apizarthron" (with bee venom). If there is edema in the inflammation zone, you can take diuretics or infusions of herbs for 3-4 days, if there are no contraindications. During the day, you can wear a pepper plaster, it also has a distracting effect, but at night it is useless. If problems with the neck are the cause of numbness or pain in the hand, smear it with any ointments is meaningless, the medicine should be applied to the affected area - the neck.
If you use a special collar of Shanz to immobilize your neck, do not wear it for long. Being still, the neck muscles weaken and atrophy, it becomes even difficult for them to keep their heads on their shoulders.
Physiotherapy exercises can not be done during a period of exacerbation - it can be started only after the exacerbation is removed.
Diagnosis is established using methodsradiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To check the condition of the vessels of the neck, ultrasound dopplerography or duplex scanning is prescribed.
Cervical osteochondrosis therapy should be as complex as possible, with the use of both medicinal and non-drug therapy, as well as in the prevention of possible complications.
Drug treatment consists in prescribingdrugs that relieve pain and inflammation (Naise, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren), as well as drugs that improve cerebral circulation. In addition, when pathological muscle tension is recommended, taking medications for relaxation ("Midokalm"), as well as vitamins in a therapeutic dose (nicotinic acid, vitamins B-B1, B6, B12), calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese.
Common drugs (mainly dietary supplements),which are called chondroprotectors and promise to restore the tissues of the intervertebral disc, according to doctors, are useless. Clinical evidence of their effectiveness is not.
A major role in the treatment of cervical osteochondrosis is attributed to physiotherapy - electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, water procedures (various therapeutic baths, showers), paraffin applications ...
Widely used and methods of alternativetherapy - reflexotherapy, manual therapy, massage, hirudotherapy. apitherapy. osteopathy. However, the most important for the treatment and prevention of osteochondrosis is therapeutic gymnastics.
That the problems connected with a cervical osteochondrosisDo not worry, you should remember the reasons for its development and the appearance of complications and, if possible, warn them. Since the main cause of cervical osteochondrosis is the sedentary lifestyle and the unphysiological position of the body in tension, it is necessary to do daily exercises for the neck, including them in the morning exercises or performing them in the workplace. In this case, remember that the circular rotation of the head doctors do not recommend, their implementation is fraught with injury to the neck.
Exercises in a sitting and standing position
1. Put your palm to your forehead, press your forehead against your palm, straining your neck muscles. The palm should resist forehead pressure for 7-10 seconds. Perform the exercise 3-4 times. This same exercise, repeat, putting the palm to the back of your head 3-4 times.
2. Attach the left palm to the left temple and press it on the palm, straining the neck muscles for 7-10 seconds. Perform the exercise 3-4 times. The same exercise repeat, pressing the right temples on the right palm.
3. The two above exercises can be done differently: lean your forehead against the wall and press it, straining the muscles of your neck. Then bend into the wall with the back of the head, then the left, then the right half of the head.
4. Tilt the head slightly back. Overcoming the resistance of the strained muscles of the neck, gradually lower it. Finish the exercise by pressing your chin against the jugular fossa. Repeat the exercise 5-6 times.
5. Stand up straight, shoulders are deployed. Slowly turn the head as far as possible to the right 5-6 times, then turn left.
6. Lower your chin to the neck and in this position, turn your head slowly: 5-6 times to the right, then to the left.
7. Tilt the head slightly back. Try to reach the right ear to the right shoulder, then left - to the left shoulder. Repeat each exercise 5 times.
8. Clasp your fingers on the back of the head, reduce elbows, place your chin on the folded forearms. Tie your fingers together so that the edge of the palm rest against the back of the head, lift the forearms together as high as possible. Remain in this position, without straining, 10-15 seconds.
Exercises in the supine position:
1. Lie on your back, straighten your legs, stretch your arms along the body. Bend your knees and hold them in your arms, pull them to your stomach, raise your head in this position and touch your forehead with your knees. Slowly straighten your legs, lift your head. Do the exercise 4-5 times.
2. Bend your knees and grasp the edge of the couch or the back of the bed. Slowly lift the trunk, reaching out to the brushes of the hands. Do the exercise 4-5 times.
3. Lie on your stomach with your legs straight. Hands lie along the body. Leaning on legs, a stomach and the bottom part of a body, lift a head and shoulders. Do the exercise 4-5 times.
4. Lie down straight, spread your arms to the sides. Slightly tearing off the floor, turn the body to the left, reach out with your right hand your left palm. Do the same, reaching out with your left hand to the right hand. Do the exercise 4-5 times.
5. Lie on your stomach, stretch your arms along your body with your hands palm up, chin - on one level with the trunk. Relax and slowly turn your head to the right - to the starting position - to the left. Try to turn your head so that it touches the ear of the floor. Do the exercise 8-10 times.
6. Lie on your stomach, with your chin leaning against your palm, relax the muscles of your neck. Turn your head to the right and left, trying to touch the ear of the floor. Do the exercise 8-10 times.
Regular execution of a set of exerciseswill help to relieve muscle tension and establish blood circulation in the collar zone, as well as improve the mobility of the vertebrae themselves. However, when performing exercises, you should monitor your sensations - do not increase the intensity of movements and tension, if there are painful sensations. In such cases, exercise should be done with great care and not for long.
For the prevention of osteochondrosis, doctors recommendRegularly visit the orthopedist from an early school age and, if necessary, correct the spinal curvature and posture disorders. To form a muscular corset - to go in for sports, first of all by swimming. Eat foods that provide the body with calcium and magnesium (fish and seafood, spinach, beans, nuts, seeds, peas, bread, dairy products, cheeses) and vitamins.
Do not allow the accumulation of excess weight. Follow the recommendations of doctors when working at the computer. Do not carry bags, hanging them on your shoulder.
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