Allocations with edema of the feet
Sputum. Causes and treatment of sputum in children and adults
Description and causes of sputum
Sputum is excreted in various diseasesrespiratory organs and is removed from the respiratory tract by coughing and expectoration. The amount of sputum may be different: from single spitting in bronchitis and the initial forms of pneumonia to 1-2 liters with suppurative diseases of the lungs (see Bronchiectasis). The separation of sputum depends on the patency of the bronchi, on the position of the patient (for example, increased sputum discharge when sitting on a healthy side). Sputum smell usually does not; it acquires putrefactive or fetid odor when putrefactive process in the lungs, during their decay. Consistency and color of sputum depends on its composition. Sputum can be liquid, viscous and thick. Distinguish sputum mucous, serous, purulent, mucopurulent, serous-purulent and bloody.
Mucous sputum is colorless, transparent, viscous,is observed in the initial stages of bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma. Serous sputum - a liquid, clear, foamy, excreted in the swelling of the lungs. Purulent sputum is creamy, greenish, formed with suppuration in the lungs. Bloody sputum contains blood in various amounts, of varying quality and is excreted in various diseases of the lungs and heart. Sputum can contain cellular elements of blood, tumor cells, elastic formations of protozoa, animals (echinococcus, ascaris larvae) and plant parasites (fungi), various bacteria. It must be remembered that sputum can be a source of spread of many infectious diseases.
The appearance of sputum is always indicative ofdisease. The determination of the quantity and properties of sputum is of great diagnostic importance. The amount of sputum may be different: from several spittles in acute bronchitis or at the onset of pneumonia to 1-2 liters per day for suppuration of the lungs (abscess, gangrene, bronchiectasis).
Under phlegm are the allocation of bronchi and trachea duringvarious diseases, to which are added the particles of saliva and discharge of the nasal mucosa. Normally, the lungs constantly produce mucus, which is necessary for cleaning the lower respiratory tract from inhaled dust and microbes. It has immune bodies. The inner side of the bronchi is covered with cilia, thanks to the work of which the mucus is transported from the respiratory organs and swallowed by man. At healthy people for a day can develop up to 100 milliliters of mucus.
The appearance of sputum during inflammatory processes in the lungs
When a person falls ill and painful processeslocalized in the respiratory system, the amount of sputum produced from it can increase to 150 milliliters per day. Depending on the disease, the color of the discharge may be different. The nature and color of sputum is:
Sputum is fluid, thick and viscous. As a rule, it does not smell, if there are no putrefactive processes in the lungs.
By the color of mucus can determine what disease was the cause of its appearance:
- With asthma, the mucus is thick and clear.
- With swelling of the lungs - frothy, with blood.
- At a cancer of lungs there are thin bloody fibers.
- With a heart attack - bright red.
- With pneumonia - purulent, yellow-green.
- With abscess of the lungs - brownish-yellow.
- With croupous pneumonia - rusty color.
- With bronchitis. flu - yellow-green, sometimes with a bloody admixture.
Sputum is inextricably linked with cough. This combination occurs in diseases associated with increased production of bronchial secretions, it happens with the formation of turbid fluid in the areas of inflammation of the respiratory organs. At the same time, the appearance of the coughing phlegm is important, which makes it possible to diagnose and track the results of treatment.
If cough accompanied by purulent, unpleasantsmelling secretions, then it can be a breakthrough abscess of respiratory organs. If, together with the increase in cough, sputum production increases, this can mean the transition of inflammation to a chronic form.
Before you start cough treatment with phlegm,it is necessary to take tests. They are carried out by the method of bacteriological inoculation for the presence of pathogenic flora and microscopy. Based on the results of the examination, the doctor appoints the patient a course of treatment.
Getting rid of sputum is carried out by dilution and creating the necessary conditions for its rapid departure. This is facilitated by:
- Abundant use of warm water. It can be juices, fruit drinks, teas.
- Humidification of air in the room. Humid air promotes the acceleration of getting rid of mucus.
- Use of expectorants. They dilute sputum and block coughing attacks.
- Implementation of coniferous inhalations. Contribute to the purification of the lungs.
- Application of drainage gymnastics. It is supposed to search for a posture in which sputum is best (lifting legs and torso above the head, knee-elbow position, coughing in the position lying on its side with bent legs).
- Passing the course of a special drainage massage. When exposed to certain points, sputum evacuation is stimulated.
It is important to remember that the right treatment can be prescribed only by a specialist.
What else can I read:
In the airway of a healthy person (in the cavitynose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lung) constantly produced secret, which is more than 90% water and the remainder - mineral salts. This secret is most often involuntarily swallowed. Sputum is always a symptom of an illness. Only by the nature of sputum can we guess what a person is sick of. When viewed with the naked eye mucus is divided into a watery, mucous and mixed with blood, it often has an unpleasant smell sweet. When studying with a microscope, bacteria, fungi, parasites and tumor cells can be detected. By being in the sputum of leukocytes (white blood cells) can judge the presence of allergies, inflammation and the state of immunity.
Types of sputum and the causes of its appearance
- With asthma between two attacks of cough, the phlegm is viscous.
- With pulmonary edema sputum it is frothy and bloody.
- Transparent sputum with blood fibers may be a symptom of an early stage of bronchogenic lung cancer.
- Mucous, watery sputum may indicate lung adenomatosis - a very rare type of cancer.
- With a pulmonary infarction sputum it is bright red (scarlet).
- With pneumonia in the cough of saffron cough, pus appears.
- With pulmonary abscess due to hemoglobin impurities, sputum is yellow-brown.
- With croupous inflammation of the lungs due to the admixture of blood, the phlegm purulent becomes rusty.
- Bloody sputum is caused by anthrax (anthrax causes inflammation of the lungs), as well as in the presence of various tumors.
- When a disease of purulent bronchitis, cancer or flu, sputum is jelly-like crimson with an admixture of blood and pus.
Physicians use the term "three-layered sputum"(below - pus and cell debris, in the middle - a yellowish-greenish, turbid watery liquid, from above purulent-mucous foamy mass), which is a symptom of bronchoectatic diseases. Such a sputum with an unpleasant sweetish odor can be a symptom of purulent bronchitis caused by bacteria that produce decay. Fetid smell of sputum occurs with gangrene of the lungs. In case of tuberculosis, a person expects an abundant amount of sputum containing destroyed and dead lung tissue. The cause of asthmatic bronchitis or bronchitis may be an allergy to various dusts in the environment. A person inhaling air containing a large number of respiratory irritant substances, falls ill with various occupational diseases, for example. pneumoconiosis (miners, coal miners). Professional bronchial asthma can be affected by: workers of printing houses (from the inhalation of gum arabic), agricultural workers (from the inhalation of dust of cereals and forage), dental appliances, housewives (from house dust).