Knee injury bruised leg
14 June 2014 | Filed under: Leg
Knee injury without a doubt occupies one of the mostleading places among all injuries. The peculiarity of these injuries is that attempts to self-medicate or delayed treatment to a doctor can cause loss of function of the knee joint for a very long time, and sometimes for life.
Injuries to the knee are also dangerous because with ageThe severity and prognosis of a knee injury only worsen, although the percentage of such injuries only grows. Although you should not underestimate the bruises and in children, for whom such injuries are almost the norm. Injuries to knee joints are dangerous because the knee has a very complex structure and is very difficult to repair if the injury is too serious.
The main causes of knee injury
- Leader for reasons of knee injuriesare falling. Especially often this happens in the autumn-spring period, when the roads are covered with ice. In addition, regardless of the time of the year, knee injuries are common in adolescents (falling during sports games, etc.);
- Just a little behind the knee injuries received during an accident. Here, people who are not in the vehicle are more likely to suffer, and pedestrians who have become participants in the accident;
- Criminal and household injuries of the knee are also very common. In this case, the bruise of the knee becomes the result of a fight or blow to the knee by some object;
- Sports injuries - are associated with doing sports. May be a consequence of a fall or impact.
A knee injury results from any excessive impact on the knee joint area. It can be both a fall and a direct blow.
The bruise itself is a soft tissue injury thataccompanied by severe pain and swelling. In the case of joints, this is accompanied by a violation of its function, that is, a limitation of mobility. Another common trauma, which often accompanies a knee injury, is the rupture of ligaments, resulting from a strong deviation of the tibia.
There are several types of knee injury, depending on the severity of the injury:
- Without dislocation;
- With a dislocation;
- Without a fracture;
- With a broken bone inside the joint.
In addition, the bruise can affect all joint arteries, as well as some of them:
- Full bruise;
- Partial (with trauma to ligaments, cartilage, muscles and tendons).
The severity of clinical symptoms depends onhow pronounced the edema is after the injury. Assessment of clinical symptoms is necessary to establish the correct diagnosis and to decide what additional methods of examination are needed.
The severity of symptoms depends on:
- The forces of the traumatic agent;
- Areas of exposure;
- Corner of injury;
- Localization of trauma.
- Hemarthrosis - the appearance of blood inside the joint cavity. The amount of blood can be different and it is from this that all other symptoms depend;
- Pain - can increase with movement and with the conduct of objective research methods (local soreness over the site of trauma during palpation);
- Swelling - is associated with swelling of soft tissues;
- Cyanosis of the skin over the site of injury - a consequence of vascular damage and the development of small bruises;
- The expressed infringement of mobility - arisesbecause of the appearance of a mechanical obstacle in the knee joint, which leads to a sharp pain when trying to bend or unbend the leg, and also limits its mobility.
Diagnosis of injury is based primarily onon the data of anamnesis (when, as a result of which an injury was received, etc.), objective examination data (visual examination of the knee joint, palpation of the injury site) and data of instrumental research methods (radiographic examination, ultrasound diagnosis, endoscopic examination of the joint cavity) .
Visually, you can see pronounced edema of the kneejoint and the presence of a discoloration of the skin due to hemorrhage. To the touch, the knee joint may be warmer than the other side. When palpation of his arises a pronounced soreness.
Treatment-diagnostic puncture - appliedalmost immediately after receipt of the victim in the hospital. With its help, it is possible to determine the presence of blood and fluid in the joint cavity, and also to remove it, reducing intraarticular pressure and reducing the severity of the pain syndrome.
When carrying out an X-ray examination, attention is paid to the integrity of the bone structures of the knee joint and, if there is a fracture, the presence of bone fragments and the degree of their displacement.
With the help of ultrasound it is possible to determine the presence of fluid inside the joint cavity, to assess the condition of ligaments and other joint structures.
The endoscopic method is a small puncture at the site of the injury with the introduction into the joint cavity of the endoscope. Using this method, you can visually assess the degree of knee injury.
How to treat a knee injury
First aid for knee injuries
First aid for injuries of any jointconsists in its immobilization, that is, its full protection against any movements, as well as applying cold to the site to reduce the severity of the edema. In addition, it is possible to use anesthetic drugs for the period of transportation to a medical institution.
After an injury, an early hospitalization is necessary(it is desirable to call an ambulance, because any movement can aggravate the severity of the condition). In the hospital, a medical-diagnostic puncture is performed, with which the fluid is removed from the joint cavity and the presence and quantity of blood in it is determined. Then the joint cavity is washed and a hydrocortisone solution is injected into it to relieve local inflammation. In the future, the victim is prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are available in the form of ointments and compresses.
During the rehabilitation period, to acceleraterecovery processes, it is desirable to use physiotherapy procedures. In those cases where a joint injury is accompanied by a rupture of ligaments, surgical treatment is indicated for the purpose of stitching them.
The length of recovery from a knee injury depends on the severity of the injury itself and the time through which the victim turned to the doctor.
If the injury was minor, and the medicalhelp was in the very near future, then the entire period of recovery will last no more than two or three weeks. But if the injury turned out to be too serious, or they turned to the specialist for help, the recovery can take from six months to several years (with the full restoration of the function of the joint can not be achieved at all).
In case of adequately selected treatment andobservance of all recommendations of the attending physician of any consequences, most likely will not be at all. If the injury was too severe, or the treatment was not complete, then a post-traumatic decrease in the functional capacity of the knee joint may occur. In this case, there is a restriction of mobility, there may be pain in walking of varying intensity and the occurrence of arthrosis and osteoporosis. In the latter case, the joint may stop functioning altogether, which will lead to disability.
Most susceptible to knee injurychildren in preschool, school and adolescence. This is due to the fact that their activity is too high, and the fear of injuries is too small. Unfortunately, children, like parents themselves, often do not pay enough attention to bruises, which in the future can become a very big problem.
Injuries to the knee joint are a very serious problem,which often leads to both partial and complete loss of joint function. That is why timely treatment for specialized medical care and adequate treatment are able to save the joint and completely restore it!