Swollen legs in thighs
Pain in the hip occurs quite often and can be caused by various problems. The precise localization of pain in the thigh can give valuable clues to understanding its root cause.
Causes of hip pain
Diseases of the hip joint are usuallycause pain in the thigh or in the groin. External pain in the thigh, pain passing over the upper thigh and buttocks, are usually caused by problems with the muscles, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissues surrounding the hip joint.
Sometimes pain in the thigh can be causeddiseases and problems in other areas of your body, for example, in the lumbar spine or in the knees. This type of pain is called "reflected" pain. Most cases of hip pain can be controlled at home.
Pain in the hip can come from structures,located within the hip joint, as well as from the structures surrounding the thigh. The hip joint is a potential space, which means that there is a minimum amount of liquid inside it, allowing the neck of the hip to slide in the nest of the swivel cavity. Any disease or trauma caused by inflammation leads to the filling of this space with liquid or blood. As a result, the femoral capsule is stretched, which leads to the appearance of pain symptoms.
Cervical hip and acetabulum are coveredarticular cartilage, which allows the bones to move inside the joint with minimal friction. In addition, the nest area of the acetabulum is covered with a rigid cartilage, called the "acetabular lip." Like any other articular cartilage, these areas can rub or rupture, which causes pain.
There are groups of thick tissues that surround the hip joint, forming a capsule. They help maintain joint stability, especially during movement.
Movement in the hip joint is carried outdue to the muscles surrounding the hip, and ligaments attached to the hip joint. In addition to controlling the movement, these muscles also act together, maintaining the stability of the joint. There are large synovial bags (closed pouches filled with liquid) surrounding the thigh area and allowing the muscles and ligaments to slide more easily over the bony protuberances. Each of these structures can become inflamed.
Pain in the thigh with intervertebral hernia of the lumbar spine
Pain in the hip can occur with intervertebralhernia of the lumbar spine. Intervertebral hernia is associated with problems with a mesotuber disk located between the bones of the spine (vertebrae), "strung" on each other and forming the spine.
The intervertebral disc resembles a donut with jellyGel-like center, enclosed in a more rigid outer shell. Intervertebral hernia occurs when soft contents go out through a hard shell. Hernia can irritate nearby nerves. If we are dealing with a hernia in the lumbar spine, then one of her symptoms may be pain in the hip. The pain goes along the sciatic nerve. Characterized by pain along the posterior front or lateral surface of the thigh.
If there is a disc herniation, one leg is more likely to be affected. Pain can be of varying intensity from mild to intolerable pain. More often the pain is combined with pain in the lower back. groin, shin and foot. Characteristic also is numbness in the hip, lower back, lower leg, and foot. Usually, improvement occurs when moving, if the hernia is a small or medium-sized disc.
It is believed that the spread of pain on the leg with a vertebral hernia (sciatica) speaks of its larger size than if the pain were only in the lower back.
Pain in the thigh with intervertebral hernia - the mostthe frequent cause of pain in the thigh in the age of up to 60 years, at the age after 60 years the superiority passes to coxarthrosis. In the second place - different types of injuries. Other reasons are rare.
Other types of nerve damage can also causepain in the thigh, for example, during pregnancy often occurs, associated with inflammation of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. Pain from the inguinal hernia can also "resonate" in the thigh.
In any case, pain in the thigh can be causedvarious reasons, which requires the doctor to look for the source of the problem, whether it be a trauma or a disease. In the absence of traumatic injury, the approach to the diagnosis of pain in the hip requires a broad understanding of the situation.
Causes of traumatic pain in the thigh
Fall is the most commonthe cause of hip fracture in the elderly. Fracture in this case occurs as a result of two problems associated with aging - osteoporosis (thinning of bones) and loss of balance. In some cases, the bone may break down spontaneously due to osteoporosis, which in turn will cause a fall.
By "hip fracture" is meant a fracture of the proximal or upper thigh.
It is necessary to know the exact location of the fracture, as this is the basis for the surgeon's decision regarding adequate surgical intervention, which allows to restore bone damage.
In addition to falling, any trauma can potentiallycause a fracture of the hip. Depending on the mechanism of damage, the femur may not break; on the contrary, part of the pelvis (most often, the branch of the pubic bone) can be broken. Initially, pain can be felt in the femoral region, but examination and x-rays can reveal another source of pain. Trauma can also cause a hip displacement, in which the femoral neck extends from the acetabulum. It is almost always associated with an acetabular (pelvic bone) fracture; nevertheless, in people with a replaced hip joint, the artificial thigh may shift spontaneously.
Closed injuries (bruises), sprains andstretching muscles and tendons can be traumatic results, and even though the bone remains intact, it can cause severe pain. Stretching of ligaments occurs when the ligaments are traumatized, while the stretching of the muscles and tendons is associated with damage to these structures. When walking or jumping, as well as performing any active activity, there is significant pressure of body weight on the hip joint. Muscles, synovial bags and ligaments are "designed" to protect the joint from the force load. When these structures are inflamed, the thigh can not function properly, which leads to the onset of pain.
Hip pain can also be associated with injuriesfrom overload, in which muscles, tendons and ligaments become inflamed. These injuries can be caused by ordinary everyday activities causing excessive tension in the hip joint, or by a specific vigorous movement. Overloading can also cause a gradual erasure of cartilage in the hip joint, which leads to arthritis (arth = joint + itis = inflammation).
It is also worth mentioning other structures thatcan become inflamed and cause pain in the thigh. The iliac-tibial tract stretches from the crest of the pelvic bone down to the outside of the thigh and to the knee. This group of tissues can inflame and provoke pain in the thigh, knee or both areas. This type of trauma from overload begins gradually and manifests itself in the tension of the muscle groups surrounding the knee and thigh. The pear-shaped muscle, in which the pear-shaped muscle irritates the sciatic nerve, can also cause pain that spreads on the back of the thigh.
Inflammation of the synovial bag (bursitis)
The acetabular synovial bag is a pouch on the outside of the thigh that protects the muscles and tendons at the point where they cross the femoral spine (bone protrusion on the femur).
The acetabular bursitis is associated with inflammation of the synovial bag. The synovial bag can become inflamed for a variety of reasons, including, due to a trauma or overload.
Causes of non-traumatic pain in the thigh
Pain in the thigh can be caused by variousdiseases. Anything that causes systemic inflammation in the body can also affect the hip joint. The synovial membrane is the epithelial ("lining") tissue that covers those parts of the hip joint that are not covered with cartilage. Synovitis (syno = synovium + itis = inflammation) or inflammation of this lining tissue results in the fluid leaking into the joint, which causes edema and pain.
Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of hip pain in people over 50; however, there are other types of arthritis. These include:
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew-Striumpell-Marie disease);
- arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis).
Some systemic diseases are associated with pain in thehip, for example, sickle-cell anemia, in which the joint can become inflamed during a sickle-shaped crisis, either with or without a major infection. The hip joint is not the only joint that can cause hip inflammation. Examples include Lyme disease, Reiter's syndrome and infections caused by food poisoning.
An avascular necrosis of the femoral neck can arisein people taking long-term corticosteroids (eg, prednisone). In this situation, the neck of the hip loses blood supply, becomes weakened and causes pain in the thigh.
Legg-Calvet-Perthes disease (Perthes disease,osteochondritis of the femoral head) is associated with idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral neck in children. Most often, it affects boys between the ages of 4 and 8.
Fibromyalgia is a systemic pain syndrome,associated with pain and stress, which can cause serious discomfort in the body, and also affects the hip. Fibromyalgia also exhibits sleep disorders, muscle spasms and convulsions, soreness of many muscle groups of the whole body and fatigue.
"Detached" hip pain
The pain in the thigh may not be associated with the hip itself, but be caused by a violation of adjacent structures.
Another example of reflected pain is Roth-Bernhardt's disease (neuralgia of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh).
Symptoms of hip pain
It is often difficult to describe pain in the thigh, and patientscan complain that they just have a hip pain. Localization, character, intensity of pain, factors affecting the improvement / deterioration of the condition depend on the damaged structure and the exact cause of inflammation or trauma.
- Pain from the hip joint can be feltas an "anterior" pain in the groin or as a "rear" pain in the buttocks. Sometimes patients can complain of pain in the knees, which, in fact, comes from the hip.
- Injury of the hip: with a fall, a direct stroke, a dislocation or a stretch, pain occurs almost immediately.
- Injury from overload: pain may appear in minutes or hours, when the inflamed muscles surrounding the hip joint spasms or inflames the joint surface, causing fluid accumulation.
- Pain: most often, the pain is felt in the front of the thigh, but the joint has three dimensions. The pain can also go along the outer thigh or even be felt in the buttock area.
- Lameness: lameness is a method of compensation, an attempt to minimize the amount of weight that a hip should support when walking. Lameness is never normal. Lameness causes an incorrect load on other joints, including the back, knees and ankles and if the lameness persists, these areas can also become inflamed and cause further symptoms.
- With a fracture of the femoral neck, acute pain occursinstantly and worsens with almost every move. The thigh muscles cause displacement of the fracture, while the leg may appear smaller or turned outward. If there is no displacement, then the leg may look normal. Pelvic fractures cause the same pain as hip fractures, but the leg looks normal.
- Herniated disc: pain usually begins in the lumbar spine and irradiates into the buttocks and into the anterior, posterior or lateral side of the thigh. It can describe in different ways due to the infringement of the nerve. Some typical terms used in describing sciatica include: acute or cutting pain and burning. The pain may worsen when the knee is straightened, because this action causes tension of the sciatic nerve, making it difficult to get up from a sitting position or fast walking. There may also be numbness and tingling. The loss of control of urination and defecation may indicate the presence of horse tail syndrome. If such a condition is not recognized and not treated, there is a risk of irreparable damage to the spinal cord.
- Arthritis: Arthritis pain tends to deteriorate after a period of inactivity and decrease with activity, but if activity increases, the pain returns.
Diagnosis of hip pain
If there is no traumatic anamnesis and paincombined or previously combined with pain in the lower back, the first type of research should be magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine and contact the neurologist.
After trauma you need to contact a traumatologist.
If you suspect coxarthrosis, a surgeon's consultation is necessary.
Hip pain treatment
Treatment depends on the cause. So, with intervertebral hernia it is better to choose conservative treatment, and with surgical treatment.
You can make an appointment with one of our clinics. For citizens of the Russian Federation, the consultation is free of charge.
The article was added to Yandex. Webmaster 04/17/2014, 17:21
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