Puffiness of cerebral vessels
Violation of the function of cerebral vessels is associatedwith spasm or reduced tone, increased permeability of the wall, a tendency to form clots and defects due to the influence of unfavorable factors of the external and internal environment. Rapid pace of life, unhealthy diet, low physical activity, addictions and constant stress are among the risk group for the development of cerebral vascular pathology. As a result, the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the neurons is broken, accumulation of under-oxidized products and substances takes place. This causes the phenomenon of hypoxia and the death of nerve cells, which adversely affects the vital activity of the whole organism. To prevent the development of the disease and severe complications, a complex medication is prescribed, according to the cause and severity of the pathological process.
Manifestations of cerebral vascular disease
The human brain is the center of work managementof all organs and systems, but at the same time it is most vulnerable in the development of hypoxia and a lack of glucose. As a result of the lack of sufficient nutrients and oxygen, irreversible changes occur in neurons-highly specialized cells that have lost the ability to divide. Therefore, it is extremely important to prevent the death of brain tissue at an early stage of the disease.
The most common pathology of cerebral vessels:
- atherosclerosis - develops when the fat metabolism is disturbed, characterized by the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque that blocks the lumen of the cerebral artery;
- discirculatory encephalopathy - a transient disruption of blood supply to the brain tissue that causes chronic hypoxia;
- vegetative vascular dystonia (VSD) - a violation of the regulatory mechanism of the vegetative system on the tone of the cerebral vessels;
- aneurysm - sack-like protrusion of the thinned artery wall as a result of increased intravascular pressure;
- migraine - angiospasm of arteries of neurotic nature.
Each disease has its own distinctive clinical signs and features of medical tactics.
- fast fatiguability;
- reduction of mental activity (attention, memory, thinking);
- violation of intellectual abilities;
- decreased memory;
- periodic headaches;
- emotional lability;
- aggravation of character traits.
- nervousness, followed by apathy;
- sleep disturbance;
- trembling in the body, nausea, sometimes vomiting;
- chronic headaches;
- discomfort in the heart;
- increase or decrease in blood pressure.
Symptoms of cerebral aneurysms:
- intense headaches;
- changing facial expressions;
- violation of the sense of smell, touch, sight;
- decreased sensitivity.
- regular pain in one half of the head of high intensity;
- appearance of harbingers of attack (numbness of limbs, loss of visual fields, fear of light);
- redness of the face, nasal congestion, puffiness of the eyes;
- nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief.
At the first clinical manifestations of pathologycerebral vessels should consult a doctor for a comprehensive examination and the appointment of timely treatment. Otherwise, the severe consequences of hypoxia of the brain tissue (ischemic stroke), violations of the integrity of the artery (hemorrhagic stroke), the development of neurological symptoms (paresis, paralysis, speech impairment), mental capacity decline develop. This significantly worsens the quality of life, reduces social adaptation in society, leads to loss of ability to work.
Conservative treatment of cerebral vascular pathology
Modern medicine has a rich arsenaldrugs containing natural and synthetic components that can stop the pathological process in the vessels of the brain and significantly improve the overall condition. It should be remembered: the earlier complex therapy has been initiated, the more favorable the outcome of the disease for recovery and full-fledged life.
Drugs for vasodilation
Spasm of the arteries causes a decrease in the intakeblood, oxygenated, to the brain tissue with migraine, atherosclerosis, hypertension in the hypertensive type (with increasing blood pressure), dyscirculatory encephalopathy. To prevent the processes of hypoxia of the brain prescribe drugs from the group of calcium antagonists, which are produced and improved for many years.
First-generation calcium antagonists include:
- verapamil (isoptin, finaptin);
- diltiazem (diazem);
- nifedipine (Corinfar, Phenigidin, Cordafen).
Second-generation calcium antagonists include:
- falipamil, gallopamil;
- nicardipine, rhyodipine, amlodipine.
The second generation of medicines haslonger action and high selectivity to the pathologically altered section of the artery, has fewer side effects. Calcium antagonists of the latest generation can act directly on the vessels of the brain without affecting the arteries of other localization. These include such effective tablets as cinnarizine and nimodipine. It should be remembered that drug therapy should be prescribed by a doctor, self-medication can lead to undesirable consequences and significantly worsen the prognosis of the disease.
Preparations for strengthening the walls of blood vessels
For normal tone and blood circulation, the wallthe vessel should be strong, elastic, without defects of the inner layer (endothelium). Otherwise, an aneurysm develops, permeability increases with the sweat of plasma into the surrounding tissue and the development of the edema of the brain regions. The change in the integrity of the endothelium favors the deposition of fats, cholesterol, platelet accumulation, which leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and thrombi. They disrupt the normal flow of blood along the vascular bed and cause the development of hypoxia.
The composition of drugs include vitamins and trace elements:
- nicotinic acid (nikoshpan, enduratin) - dilates capillaries, strengthens the wall of blood vessels, reduces the synthesis of low-density cholesterol and deposition of it in the endothelium;
- Vitamin P and ascorbic acid (ascorutin) -combined action of vitamins normalizes metabolic processes in the wall of arteries and veins, reduces their permeability, increases resistance to pressure and traumatic factors;
- dihydroquerciticin - is an extract of biologically active substances of Dahurian larch, favorably affects the elasticity of blood vessels;
- selenium, potassium, silicon - important trace elements for the normalization of metabolism in the wall of the arteries and maintaining the tone of the cerebral vessels.
Medicines of this group are prescribed by courses inform of tablets and injection forms under the supervision of a doctor for therapeutic and preventive purposes. For the therapy of atherosclerosis, additional funds are also prescribed to improve fat metabolism, stabilizing and dissolving atherosclerotic plaque, preventing the formation of thrombi. These include fibrates (gemfibrozil, fenofibrate), statins (lovastatin, fluvastatin), antiaggregants (cardiomagnesium, thromboass).
Medicines based on organiccomponents are highly effective, have no absolute contraindications and have a mild effect on the body without the occurrence of side effects. They can be prescribed independently and be included in complex therapy of the pathology of cerebral vessels.
To medicines based on vegetable alkaloids are:
- preparations vinca (Cavinton, vinpocetine,bravinton, teletext) - have an antispasmodic effect, normalize the tone of the vessels, improve metabolic processes in the brain tissue, prevent pathological thrombosis, optimize microcirculation of the brain;
- preparations gingko biloba (gingium, tanakan, ginkorfort, bilobil) are made of a relict plant containing in its composition biologically active substances that dilate the vessels, improve the metabolism of the brain tissue, prevent the formation of thrombi, neutralize free radicals and exert anti-edematous action.
As a result of regular use of medicinesdrugs improves mental activity, sleep and emotional state normalize, headaches cease, neurological symptoms disappear (impaired sensitivity, facial expressions, motor activity).
Medications for migraine therapy
The development of migraine attacks is associated with spasm, andthen weakening the tone of the cerebral vessels, which leads to their expansion and stagnation of blood. As a result of the violation of the permeability of the walls of the arteries and veins, the plasma seeps into the surrounding tissues and causes the brain to swell in the pathological process. This condition can last from half an hour to several days, after which the tone of the vessels is restored. With frequent attacks, the microcirculation of the brain regions is aggravated, and irreversible changes in neurons may appear.
Medications for the treatment of migraine include:
- analgesics and antispasmodics (spazmolgon, amygrenin) - are appointed at the beginning of an attack, which is accompanied by vasospasm;
- vasoconstrictors (caffeine, ergotamine) - narrow arteries during the period of paralytic vascular tone;
- antagonists of serotonin (imigran, zomig, maksalt) - prevent the expansion of the arteries of the head and neck;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, diclofenac) - have anti-edematous, analgesic effect, reduce the inflammatory process.
Vasoconstrictors are also prescribed in the VSD forhypotonic type in order to improve cerebral blood flow. To improve the functional efficiency of the brain, the administration of nootropics (piracetam, aminolone), neuropeptides (semax), metabolic agents (glycine) is recommended.
Prevention and treatment of cerebral vesselsmust be carried out in a timely manner under the close supervision of a physician. Such an approach will become a pledge of health and prevention of the development of ischemic brain damage. Important for maintaining the normal functioning of neurons has a rational diet, an active lifestyle, overcoming alcohol and nicotine addiction, the correct regime of the day.