Leg edema and dizziness
As is known, cardiovascular diseasesoccupy the first place among the most common and dangerous diseases of our time. There are many reasons for this, but the genetic predisposition and the wrong way of life are considered basic.
Cardiovascular diseases are numerous,flow in different ways and their origin is different. They can arise as a result of inflammatory processes, congenital developmental defects, traumas, intoxication, pathological changes in metabolic processes, and also as a result of causes that have been little studied at present.
However, for such a variety of reasonsthe emergence of diseases associated with disruption of the cardiovascular system, these diseases combine common symptoms that manifest themselves in these pathologies. Consequently, there are general rules for recognizing the first signs of the manifestation of the disease. They need to be known in order to be able to avoid complications, and sometimes the very disease of the cardiovascular system.
Basic symptoms of cardiovascular disease. which allow us to talk about the pathology associated with the work of the cardiovascular system:
Pain and discomfort in the chest
Pain is one of the most common symptomsdiseases associated with disruption of the cardiovascular system. If the pain is burning, acute, most often there is a spasm of the coronary vessels, which leads to insufficient nutrition of the heart. Such pains are called angina pectoris. They can occur with physical activity, low temperature, stress. Angina appears in those cases when the blood flow can not satisfy the needs of the heart muscle in oxygen. The angina, or angina pectoris, the doctor can recognize already at the first reference of the patient. Worse things are with the diagnosis of abnormalities. For a correct diagnosis, it is necessary to monitor the course of angina pectoris, the analysis of questions and examinations of the patient. An additional study is required - daily monitoring of the ECG (ECG recording during the day).
There are stenocardia and angina pectorisvoltage. Angina of rest is not associated with physical effort, often occurs at night, has common features with a severe attack of angina, often accompanied by a feeling of lack of air. Angina pectoris is stable when the attacks occur with a more or less certain frequency and are provoked by a load of approximately the same degree, and also unstable, in which the attack occurs for the first time or the nature of the attacks changes: they arise unexpectedly and last longer, signs appear that are not typical for previous attacks progressive angina). Unstable angina is dangerous because it can lead to the development of myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with this type of angina pectoris are hospitalized.
Do not forget that the attack of anginamay be a harbinger of coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction. In this regard, when the first symptoms of the angina pectoris appear, the patient needs to undergo an electrocardiographic examination in the near future, and then carry out medical follow-up of the further development of angina pectoris. It is believed that such patients need hospitalization for an accurate diagnosis, as well as for monitoring the course of the disease. To detect abnormalities in the work of the heart, a high result is obtained by the use of a cardiovisor. The services provided by the Kardi.ru project help people to independently control the dynamics of changes in the heart and promptly consult a doctor even when there are no visible manifestations of the disease.
Strong prolonged pain behind the sternum,giving back to the left arm, neck and back is characteristic of developing myocardial infarction. One of the most common causes of myocardial infarction is coronary artery atherosclerosis. The pains with MI are often intense and are so strong that a person can lose consciousness and it may come as a shock: pressure drop, pallor appear, cold sweat come out.
Severe pain in the chest, while giving back to the back, sometimes to the groin, speaks of an aneurysm, or aortic dissection.
Dull pain in the region of the heart, then increasing, thenweakening without spreading to other areas of the body, against a background of rising temperature indicates the development of pericarditis (inflammation of the cardiac sac - pericardium).
Sometimes pain can occur in the abdomen, which indicates the diseases of the vessels of the abdominal organs.
With thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery (PE)the symptoms will depend on the location and size of the blood clot. A person will feel pain in the chest, giving back to the shoulder, arm, neck and jaw. Dyspnea is a frequent companion of thromboembolism. Cough and even hemoptysis may appear. The patient feels weak, often palpitations.
Stupid and short stitching in the heart,which occurs irrespective of movements and physical efforts, without disturbances in respiration and palpitation, is typical for patients with neurosis of the heart (cardiac type neurocirculatory dystopia).
Neurosis of the heart is a fairly common diseaseof cardio-vascular system. This is due to the intense rhythm of our lives and frequent stressful situations. As a rule, this disease occurs after nervous overloads. Heart pain can occur quite a long time - from a few hours to several days. With this pathology, pain is not associated with physical overload, which distinguishes them from pain in angina pectoris. Pain disappears after a person calms down and forgets about the agitation that it has endured. The triggered cases of neurasthenia can lead to the onset of angina pectoris.
With neurosis of the heart, in addition to cardiovasculardisorders, patients also have functional disorders of the nervous system - absent-mindedness, fatigue, poor sleep, anxiety, limb tremor.
Acute pain in the chest can testify not only about the diseases associated with cardiovascular system dysfunction, but also as a consequence of other diseases. These include:
- Intercostal neuralgia, which is characterized byacute, paroxysmal, shooting pain along the intercostal spaces (where the nerve of the nerve passes). Pain points are located at the exit of the nerves (right and left of the spine). With intercostal neuralgia, there may be a violation of the sensitivity of the skin in the intercostal area.
- Tinea, the appearance of which (the beginningdisease) is accompanied by pain, similar to intercostal neuralgia, but often more intense. In the area of the pain (in the field of intercostal spaces) there are so-called herpetic vesicles. The disease is accompanied by an increase in temperature.
- Spontaneous pneumothorax, for whichcharacterized by a sudden appearance of pain in the chest, with pain accompanied by severe shortness of breath. This disease is typical for people suffering from chronic respiratory diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, etc.). Sometimes it can occur in people who do not suffer from these diseases, with severe physical exertion, a strong sharp exhalation.
- Cardiospasm (spasm of the esophagus), for which, in addition to pain behind the sternum, a violation of swallowing and eructation is characteristic.
- Cervical and thoracic radiculitis, accompanied by severe pain associated with movement (twists, bends of the trunk, neck).
Very often according to the description of the person it is painfulsensations the doctor can draw a conclusion about the origin of the disease. An irreplaceable assistant in this case can be a cardiovisor, which allows you to determine whether the pathology is related to the work of the cardiovascular system or not.
Strong heartbeat and a feeling of heart failure
A strong palpitation does not always mean developmentsome kind of pathology, since it can occur with increased physical exertion or as a result of emotional excitement of a person, and even after eating a large amount of food.
In diseases of the cardiovascular system, a strongHeart palpitations often occur in the early stages of the disease. The sensation of failures in the work of the heart occurs when the heart rhythm is disturbed. In this case, it seems to the person that the heart almost "jumps out" from the chest, then freezes for a certain period of time.
Such symptoms of cardiovascular disease characteristic of tachycardia, which is accompanied byHeartbeat with a distinct start and finish, the duration of which can be from a few seconds to several days. Nadzheludochkovye tachycardias are accompanied by sweating, increased intestinal peristalsis, profuse urination at the end of the attack, a slight increase in body temperature. Prolonged seizures may be accompanied by weakness, discomfort in the heart, fainting. If there are heart diseases, then angina pectoris, heart failure. Ventricular tachycardia is observed less often and is more often associated with heart disease. It leads to a violation of blood supply to organs, as well as to heart failure. Ventricular tachycardia can be the precursor of ventricular fibrillation.
With blockade of the heart can be observed irregularreduction, in particular, "loss" of individual impulses or a significant slowing of the heart rate. These symptoms can be combined with dizziness or fainting due to a decrease in cardiac output.
In diseases of the heart, shortness of breath can manifest itself alreadyin the early stages. This symptom occurs with heart failure: the heart does not work at full capacity and does not pump the required amount of blood through the blood vessels. Most often, heart failure develops as a result of atherosclerosis (deposits in the vessels of atherosclerotic plaques). In the case of a mild form of the disease, dyspnea disturbs with intense physical activity. In severe cases, dyspnea occurs in a state of rest.
The appearance of dyspnea may be associated with stagnation of blood in a small circle of blood circulation, a disorder of cerebral circulation.
Sometimes cardiac dyspnea is difficult to distinguish from shortness of breath accompanying lung disease. Both cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea may intensify at night, when a person goes to bed.
With heart failure, fluid retention in the tissues of the body is possible as a result of slowing blood flow, which can cause pulmonary edema and threaten the life of the patient.
Pronounced obesity, increasing the weight of the chestwall, significantly increases the load on the muscles involved in the process of breathing. This pathology leads to shortness of breath, which correlates with physical activity. Since obesity is a risk factor for the development of IHD and promotes the formation of thrombi in the veins of the legs followed by pulmonary embolism, it is only possible to associate dyspnea with obesity if these diseases are excluded.
Not the least role in the search for the causes of dyspneain the modern world, detuneism. Dyspnea is experienced not only by the sick, but also by healthy people who lead a low-activity lifestyle. With severe physical exertion, even a normally functioning left ventricle in such people can not manage to pump all the blood that comes to the aorta, which ultimately leads to stagnation in a small circle of circulation and shortness of breath.
One of the symptoms of neurotic statesis psychogenic dyspnea, which is easy to distinguish from cardiac dyspnea. People who are sick with a neurosis of the heart, have difficulty breathing: they do not have enough air all the time, and therefore they have to periodically take deep breaths. Such patients are characterized by superficial breathing, dizziness and general weakness. Such respiratory disorders are of a purely neurogenic nature and have nothing to do with shortness of breath, which is characteristic of cardiac or pulmonary diseases.
When making a diagnosis, a doctor can easily distinguishpsychogenic dyspnea from the heart. However, there are often difficulties in the differential diagnosis of psychogenic dyspnea, which differs from the dyspnea characteristic of pulmonary embolism. It is important not to miss the mediastinal tumor and primary pulmonary hypertension. In this case, the diagnosis is made by exclusion after a thorough examination of the patient.
To accurately determine the nature of unpleasantsensations in the chest, as well as shortness of breath resort to the help of veloergometry, or Holter monitoring of the ECG. A high degree of effectiveness in the detection of pathologies in the work of the heart can be achieved with the help of a computer system for screening and analyzing the variance of the ECG signal, which the Kardi.ru project offers.
The main cause of edema is an increasepressure in the venous capillaries. This is facilitated by such causes as disruption of the kidneys and increased permeability of the walls of blood vessels. If the ankles are swollen mainly, this may indicate heart failure.
Cardiac edema will be different in walking andlying patients, since they are associated with the movement of the interstitial fluid under the action of gravity. For walking patients, the edema of the lower leg is characteristic, which increases by evening and falls off by morning, after sleep. With further accumulation of fluid, it spreads upward, and the patients have swelling in the thighs, then the waist and abdominal wall. In severe cases, swelling spreads to the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall, hands and face.
In bedridden patients, excess fluid usually first accumulates at the waist and in the region of the sacrum. Therefore, patients with suspected heart failure should be turned over on the stomach.
Bilateral symmetrical swelling of the legs, as a ruleappearing after a long stay on the feet, accompanied by shortness of breath, rapid pulse and wheezing in the lungs, may be a consequence of acute or chronic heart failure. Such swelling, as a rule, spreads from the bottom up and intensifies toward the end of the day. Asymmetric foot swelling occurs with phlebothrombosis - the most common cause of pulmonary embolism, which can lead to overload in the work of the right ventricle.
Determine the edema of your legs can be severalways. Firstly, after removing clothing in the places of clamping, for example, with the elastic bands of the socks, pits remain that do not immediately pass. Secondly, within 30 seconds after pressing the finger on the front surface of the shin at the site of the closest location of the bone to the skin surface, even with small swelling there is a "pit" that does not go very long. To determine the exact cause of edema, visit the therapist. He will be able to determine which specialist should be contacted first.
Violation of the color of the skin (pallor, cyanosis)
Pallor is most often observed with anemia, vasospasm, severe rheumatic heart disease (inflammatory damage to the heart with rheumatism), insufficiency of the aortic valves.
Cyanosis (cyanosis) of the lips, cheeks, nose, earlobes and extremities is observed with severe degrees of pulmonary heart failure.
Headaches and dizziness
These symptoms are often accompanied bydiseases associated with abnormalities in the work of the heart and blood vessels. The main reason for this response is that the brain does not receive the required amount of blood, and consequently, there is not enough blood supply to the brain with oxygen. In addition, there is a poisoning of cells by the products of decay, which are not taken in time by blood from the brain.
Headache, especially pulsating, cantestify to an increase in blood pressure. However, in other cases it can also be asymptomatic. Increased pressure must be treated, since it can lead to myocardial infarction, and sometimes to apoplexy.
Inflammatory processes (myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis) and myocardial infarction are accompanied by fever, sometimes with fever.
On the appearance of problems in the work of the heart can alsotestify to bad sleep, sticky sweat, anxiety, nausea and unpleasant sensations in the chest when lying on the left side, as well as a feeling of weakness and increased fatigue of the body.
If there is a first suspicion ofthe existence of problems related to the work of the heart should not be expected when there are visible symptoms, since very many diseases of the cardiovascular system start with the appearance of a person's feeling that "something is wrong" in the body.
Everyone should remember the need for earlydiagnosis, because it is not a secret for anyone that the sooner a disease is revealed, the easier and less risky for the patient's life will be treated.
One of the most effective means of earlydetection of cardiovascular diseases is the use of a cardiovisor, since the ECG data processing uses a new patented method for analyzing microalterations (microscopic jitter) of the ECG signal, which allows to detect abnormalities in the work of the heart already in the early stages of the disease.
It is well known that often the disease develops,it can be said, quite unnoticeable for the patient and is detected only when examined by a cardiologist. This fact indicates the need for preventive visits to the cardiologist at least once a year. It is necessary to study the results of ECG. If the cardiologist is able to analyze the results of an electrocardiogram made immediately upon appearance symptoms of cardiovascular diseases. then the likelihood of establishing a correct diagnosis, and therefore, of carrying out the correct treatment will increase at times.
Rostislav Jadeyko. especially for the project Kardi.Ru.