How to recognize edema on the legs
Unfortunately, most future moms duringpregnancy is faced with such a problem as swelling. In this case, edema appears not only in girls who gained during pregnancy a lot of extra pounds, as is commonly believed. There are also swelling in very thin women. In addition, many relate to swelling as an integral companion to pregnancy and do not consider it necessary to do anything to get rid of them. Meanwhile, swelling is very different. They can quickly retreat after proper "unloading" without causing any harm, while others may be a signal that indicates a serious heart or kidney disease. And, finally, swelling can be a sign of the beginning of a serious complication - gestosis. At the heart of all disorders with swelling of pregnant women is a spasm of small blood vessels, a decrease in the volume of circulating blood, a change in coagulability and fluidity of the blood. This leads to a decrease in blood supply to tissues that can not function normally. The most sensitive to lack of blood supply is the brain and kidneys. The placenta is also undergoing changes, which causes a delay in intrauterine development of the fetus. Where do they come from? What is dangerous, and most importantly, how to deal with them?
In scientific terms, swelling is an excessiveaccumulation of fluid in the tissues and cavities of the human body, manifested by an increase in the volume of tissues, a change in physical properties (elasticity, elasticity) and a disorder in the function of edematous tissue. At the same time, the liquid accumulates in the intercellular space with edema, which violates the water-salt balance and in the cells too. The problem is that edematous tissue easily becomes infected. And for a pregnant woman it is extremely dangerous.
Unfortunately, at times the edema can be recognized only at the late stage of its appearance. There are hidden "internal" and external swelling.
Internal swelling manifests itself in the form ofincrease in weight of the future mummy. That is why it is important to keep a diary in which the future mother will record weekly any changes in her weight. Weight gain of more than 300 grams per week suggests that the body began to accumulate liquid. If there is no gain in weight, but there is a suspicion of edema, counting the liquid and the liquid given out for the day will help. Normally, the daily amount of the released liquid should be at least 0.75 of the total amount of liquid drained. If the internal swelling in time to find it was not possible - they will make themselves known in a visible manner. Edema appears most often in the ankle region, and then spreads upwards to the lower back, genitals, anterior abdominal wall, hands, they are clearly visible when the position of the body changes, because they are displaced.
Recognize the visible swelling is very simple. The oedematous skin is rather dry, soft, pale, sometimes (with pronounced swelling) shiny. I must say that sometimes on the well-being of the future mother swelling does not affect, however, the volume of circulating blood is reduced. Obvious swelling can not be overlooked: shoes and rings become tight, facial features become blurred, and eyelids swell. In the morning, edema is not so noticeable, because at night the fluid spreads evenly throughout the body. In the afternoon, swellings on the legs are especially noticeable: when pressing a finger on the surface a hole is formed, which remains for a long time.
If you do not detect swelling in time and take no measures,they can lead to quite serious consequences: increased blood pressure, the appearance of protein in the urine, a violation of the central nervous system. This condition is very dangerous, both for the mother and for the fetus. Therefore, at the first suspicion of swelling, one should consult a doctor and not hesitate to take action.
So how do you deal with swelling? As a rule, when revealing concealed swelling, the doctor prescribes a diet for a woman with a restriction of salt and liquid. Liquids (along with the first dishes and fruits) should be consumed no more than 1 liter per day. Fruits (apples, pears, grapes and others) are largely composed of water, so when calculating the volume of the liquid you need to consider the actual weight of the fruit. In other words, if you ate an apple weighing 200 g, you need to add 200 ml to the fluid consumed per day.
Only restriction of fluid intake is notwill help in the fight against edema, if not simultaneously reduce salt intake. It is sodium molecules that are bound in the body with water molecules and prevent it from being secreted by the kidneys. Food is best prepared without adding salt, and then, during meals, slightly add salt (while the amount of salt should not exceed 5 grams per day). It is necessary to exclude from the diet fried, fatty and spicy food - all this causes increased thirst. For the same reason, it is necessary to remove salted cucumbers, herring, sauerkraut, salted peanuts, and black bread from the diet.
To combat swelling and overweight, the doctor mayprescribe also unloading diets. Unloading days are held no more often than every 7 to 10 days. The diet is selected individually, taking into account the characteristics of the organism of the future mother and her eating habits. There are several options for an unloading diet:
Cottage cheese: 500 gr. low-fat cottage cheese per day divided into 5 parts + 0.5 liters of kefir;
Apple: 1.5 kg. apples divided by 5 times, eat raw or baked;
Protein: 500 g. lean meat (beef) or low-fat fish or chicken breasts without skin boil without salt (or a little salt), divided into 5 portions + 1 liter of kefir;
Buckwheat: a glass of buckwheat boil without salt, there are during the day + 1.5 milk or kefir;
Vegetable: 1,5 kg of baked pumpkin or zucchini divided into 5 receptions; pumpkin and zucchini normalize peristalsis of the intestine, have a weak diuretic effect, thereby removing excess water from the body.
And to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, a doctorcan also prescribe ascorbic acid, rutin and other medications that can be consumed by pregnant women. Sometimes plant diuretics are prescribed (for example, bearberry). However, in this matter the recommendation can only be given by a doctor!
Compliance with the diet, as a rule, is quite sufficientquickly cope with the physiological edema caused by weight gain or excessive intake of salt and liquid. However, (although in rare cases), there are "cardiac" and "kidney" edema - they are called pathological. With them, things are much more complicated.
In women with heart disease (for example, withheart disease) edema can occur due to heart failure. You can recognize them like this: they are always located in the lower parts of the body: if a woman walks, then on her legs, if she is, then on her lower back. There is almost no swelling of the hands and face. To clarify the cause of edema, doctors determine the size of the liver. With "cardiac" edema, the liver first increases, then swelling develops. With edema due to gestosis (dropsy, nephropathy), the liver is not enlarged. In addition, with heart failure, the appearance of edema is preceded by persistent palpitation, dyspnea, bluish coloration of mucous membranes (in gestosis, these symptoms are absent).
"Renal" swelling occurs with somekidney diseases, for example, with acute and some forms of chronic glomerulonephritis (inflammatory kidney disease of an immunoallergic nature), although most of the urological diseases that occur in pregnant women are without edema (pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, etc.). With "kidney" swelling appear puffiness of the face, bags under the eyes, later - swelling of the legs and hands. As a rule, a woman knows and her doctor is aware of the existence of the disease and the risk of edema. However, sometimes kidney diseases appear and make themselves felt during pregnancy, which creates certain diagnostic difficulties, overcome with the help of additional studies. "Renal" edema occurs with specialized treatment of the underlying disease, which is prescribed by a nephrologist or urologist. When there is or worsening of heart and liver diseases during pregnancy treatment is carried out in a hospital.
Is it possible to prevent the onset of edema,to carry out prevention? Yes, if a woman knows what is at risk. We are talking about women with hypertensive disease, kidney pathology, endocrine diseases, violations of fat metabolism. In the presence of these diseases already in the first trimester of pregnancy, the future mother should be fed according to the appropriate rules. Avoid fried foods, give preference to boiled foods. Drink during this period, doctors usually advise 1200-1300 ml of fluid per day. Starting from the second trimester of pregnancy (from the 13th to the 14th week), various herbs can be taken to prevent edema, which have a sedative effect-for example, valerian and motherwort, and hawthorn improves vascular tone. Very useful herbs and collections that favorably affect kidney function: kidney tea, birch buds, bearberry, cranberry leaf, corn stigmas, etc.
Unfortunately, even prevention and compliance of allThe prescribed measures do not help a woman avoid the appearance of edema. In this case, one thing to remember: try to cope with edema yourself, hope that they will leave themselves in a few days - not. Edemas testify to abnormalities in the blood circulation system and can be dangerous for the baby. If there is a suspicion of swelling, and even more so when they appear, the expectant mother should always consult a doctor who will help with a minimal loss to get rid of the disease.
The article was prepared by Natalia Mikheeva.