Treatment of leg edema in the elderly with medicines
Human feet experience a large dailyload, therefore this part of the musculoskeletal system is often subjected to various pathological processes. Most of the diseases lead to the appearance of external symptoms. The most common are edema on the legs, which can be associated with a variety of causes. In particular, this symptom is characteristic for venous and cardiac insufficiency, as well as for trauma and many other conditions.
The causes of edema of the legs are fairly simple to explain inIf the patient has problems with the veins of the lower extremities. Normally these blood vessels come from the lower parts to the upper ones, and then to the heart. In order to provide unidirectional blood flow against gravity, in the veins of the legs there is a large number of valves that can open only one way.
With various changes, including, defeatconnective tissue or varicose veins, the valve apparatus is inadequate. As a result, part of the blood stagnates in the dilated vessels of the lower extremities. At the same time, the pressure in them increases. Due to this, the liquid part of the blood penetrates into the intercellular space, bypassing the vessel wall, and accumulates. In elderly people, this situation is almost universal. That is why in the evening they often notice footprints from socks in the region of the shins.
In the event that there is a thrombusin the veins of the lower extremities, there is an acute stagnation of blood, which is accompanied by the appearance of edema. When the inflammatory reaction is added, the edema becomes worse, and the limb itself becomes hot and reddish. There is also marked soreness in the course of the altered vein. In such a situation asymmetric lesion is characteristic, for example, with thrombophlebitis of veins on the left, the right leg remains unchanged. This is one of the important diagnostic criteria.
With heart failure, puffiness of the lowerlimbs is a sign of a violation of blood flow through a large range of blood circulation. In this case, as in the case of venous insufficiency, the pressure in the vessels increases. Due to this part of the fluid from the vascular bed flows into the intercellular space and accumulates in the subcutaneous tissue. Initially, edema of the feet develops, which as the heart failure progresses, spreads higher up to the abdomen and chest. In this case, edematous syndrome is called anasarka, or dropsy.
With diabetes, there is a secondarychanges in blood vessels, which is accompanied by the development of microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. In this case, the delivery of oxygen and other valuable substances to all tissues of the body, including the lower extremities, is disrupted. In addition, in connection with the destruction of the vascular wall, it becomes much more permeable not only for the liquid, but also for some larger molecules.
In the event that the legs swell in patients withdiabetes mellitus, this condition is usually accompanied by the development of trophic changes. In this case, in the feet, and then in other areas of the legs, non-healing ulcers appear, from which fluid can constantly be released from the bloodstream through the vascular wall.
Pregnancy in women is a physiological process, but in connection with serious hormonal changes can lead to disruption of the work of various organs, for example, kidneys and blood vessels.
One of the most serious complications during childbearing is the development of late gestosis.
For this pathological condition is characterized by the development of nephropathy, which manifests itself in the appearance of protein in the urine, hypertension, as well as edematous syndrome, primarily affecting the ankle.
In case of untimely diagnosis or in the absence of treatment, gestosis can grow into a more serious pathology,called eclampsia. This disease is characterized by the development of neurological symptoms and can lead to death. That is why at every reception the gynecologist weighs the pregnant woman and her full examination.
If any deviations are detected, the patient is referred for treatment to a hospital. In a critical situation, a cesarean section is performed. After birth, all the phenomena of gestosis, as a rule, disappear without a trace.
If the patient has swollen feet in the anklesand higher, it is quite possible that we are talking about lymphostasis. This situation usually arises after surgical treatment, during which lymph nodes or vessels have been damaged. In this case, the lesion is usually asymmetric, and a small amount of lymph is leaking through the skin. In case of secondary infection, the skin acquires a reddish hue, an unpleasant odor appears.
The temporary appearance of edema of the lower extremities can be associated with various physiological processes:
- A prolonged stay in the sitting position of the body, in which venous blood stasis occurs even against the background of a retained valvular apparatus.
- Weather conditions. For example, in summer, legs swell much more often than in winter, so doctors recommend summer shoes to buy on size larger.
- Accuracy in the diet, for example, eating a large amount of salty foods.
- Period before menstruation, during which there is a temporary disruption of the excretion of fluid from the body, associated with hormonal changes.
- Alcohol intoxication and a large amount of drunk water.
On the question of why swollen legs in the heat, and notin the cold, there is no definite answer. It would seem, on the contrary, in the summer, the release of liquid increases due to the formation of water. However, against this background, people often use excessive amounts of water, which leads to the formation of edema.
As a result of traumatic injury of the lower limbs, local edema, which, in contrast to vascularchanges, is located directly in the area of the lesion. For example, if the left leg is edematous, then there was a stroke here, which means that it is necessary to conduct a bone and joint examination. The same can be said about chronic joint diseases, which are accompanied by the development of edema.
Damage to the osteoarticular apparatus, which is accompanied by edema, includes:
- A dislocation, for example, an ankle joint.
- Fracture does not only damage the bones,but also the soft tissues of the legs. After a fracture, hematoma is often formed, as well as swelling, which is a normal reaction of the body to the effect of external force.
- Osteoarthritis or arthritis often occurs in the area ofknee joint, because it is the most mobile and is experiencing heavy loads. In this case, there is a pronounced soreness, as well as a local swelling, which is considered a manifestation of an inflammatory reaction.
The question of what to do with edema of the lower limbs, it is better to ask the doctor. Especially it concerns those cases when this symptom is associated with various serious diseases.
If swelling is temporary and associated withphysiological changes, then improve the well-being will help the people's means. Most often, various medicinal preparations are used. Diuretic herbs with edema of the feet are part of most of them:
All these plant components in variouscombinations are used in the preparation of broths and infusions. In addition, various diuretics can be used to get rid of edema caused by increased circulating blood volume or circulatory failure and stagnation.
They include several groups:
- loop (lasix);
- thiazide (hypothiazide);
Depending on the specific group for a prolongedreception of diuretics is possible the formation of violations of electrolyte blood composition (hyperkalemia, hypokalemia). Therefore, it is desirable to monitor these indicators and not abuse these drugs without prescribing a doctor.
In the case of the presence of lymphostasis or thrombophlebitisusually prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs, sometimes antibiotics and painkillers. In a number of cases, surgical treatment is performed. For example, in the case of pronounced varicose veins, some of the veins are removed. At the same time, they are completely turned off from the blood stream, and the stagnation of blood in the veins of the lower extremities decreases noticeably.
Treatment of edema of the legs can be carried out withusing various drugs for topical use. However, these drugs do not penetrate deep enough into the soft tissues, so they can not be administered to patients with massive changes. The most commonly used tools are:
- Troxevasin is available as a gel. Its action is based on improving the rheological properties of blood and normalizing blood flow through the vessels of the legs.
- A cooling cream with menthol will help to eliminate the unpleasant sensations associated with heat exposure or increased stress. This remedy is most effective for temporary physiological edema.
- With edema associated with trauma, ointment traumel is good. This homeopathic preparation promotes the rapid healing and elimination of inflammation in the area of injury or fracture.
For local treatment, you can also use various lotions or baths:
- massage with ice slices helps to reduce edema due to spasm of arteries and elimination of blood stagnation;
- contrasting baths (hot and cold water alternate every five minutes) increase the tone of the vessels and stimulate microcirculation;
- lotions with their own urine (urinotherapy) help in the treatment of edema due to increased oncotic pressure by exposure to high concentrations of salts (urine can be replaced with a solution of salt).
In order to maximally remove swelling of the lower limbs, you need to work on the cause of their appearance. To do this, you should consult a doctor, and not self-medicate.