Edema of the brain after trauma
Injuries accompany a person all his life. They are in children and adults, old people and kids. And a large percentage of injuries occur precisely in craniocerebral trauma. And these injuries are especially dangerous, primarily by their complications, for example, brain edema.
Injuries open and closed
Like any injury, damage to the skull andthe brain can be closed and open. Damage to this area of the human body, where the most important part of the central nervous system is located - the brain, is a serious injury, which is dangerous for the life of the victim.
Closed damage, in which there is noexternal bleeding usually occurs as a result of blunt trauma (a blow to the head with a solid object, fall, etc.). Closed injuries, although they do not look as scary as open ones, but they are no less dangerous. As a result, there may be complications such as concussion, bruising (concussion), edema (compression) of the brain, fractures of the arch and the base of the skull.
Edema of the brain - a frequent companion of injuries
Swelling (compression) of the brain may occurfrom various causes related to both trauma (intracranial hemorrhage, pressure on the brain tissue of the skull fragment in case of injury and bruise, etc.), and with certain diseases (brain tumors, increased intracranial pressure, etc.). Without touching all the reasons, we will dwell only on the mechanism of edema caused by closed trauma of the skull.
Most often the initial (starting) momentthe cerebral edema appears intracerebral (intracranial) bleeding with the appearance of a hematoma as a result of a bruise or injury to the head. Edema in these cases usually develops slowly, wavy, and immediately after the injury symptoms may appear that are characteristic for concussion and brain contusion. After helping the patient can become easier, there is a so-called "light gap", which has a different duration - from several hours to several days. However, this state is deceptive, subjective and does not correspond to severe disorders occurring in the cranial cavity. Subsequently, the hematoma, continuing to squeeze the brain tissue, causes venous congestion, increases the amount of cerebral fluid, which ultimately leads to a general edema of the brain. The first and threatening symptom of developing edema is the resumption or intensification of a headache, which often appears after a "light gap". In case of severe trauma of this interval and temporary improvement in health, there may be no or they are masked by common symptoms of concussion and bruising, which greatly complicates the diagnosis of edema.
It should be remembered that the swelling of the brainquickly progresses. Soon, psychomotor agitation joins, symptoms of brain irritation appear, accompanied by vomiting, narrowing of the pupil on the side of the hematoma, rapidity of the pulse (tachycardia) and respiration. Then comes the period of oppression of brain activity, and the victim becomes sluggish, slowed down, consciousness is lost, bradycardia arises (heart rate is 40-50 per minute), blood pressure decreases rapidly, respiratory and cardiovascular activity is sharply depressed, . These symptoms indicate the presence in the body of serious pathological changes, which are based on acute disturbance of cerebral circulation, leading to oxygen starvation of brain tissue and death of nerve cells. If the main cause of compression of the brain is not eliminated in a timely manner and the measures to reduce intracranial pressure are not taken, the victim may die from stopping breathing and cardiac activity.
Pre-medical and medical assistance
How quickly you need help withcraniocerebral trauma? In the first minutes. Timely rendering assistance at all stages is able not only to save a person's life, but life is full. Primary trauma may not be very serious, but secondary factors (in time, did not normalize breathing, pressure, did not remove the victim from shock) are capable of leading a person to disability and even death.
Therefore, when providing the first medical andFirst aid should be taken into account that the edema of the brain is a condition that threatens the life of the victim. Due to the fact that it can not develop immediately, every head trauma must be considered as serious, capable of causing serious complications right up to a lethal outcome.
Such victims must be urgentlycompliance with all precautions are delivered to a medical institution for the provision of urgent specialized medical care. Unfortunately, often with craniocerebral injuries people are taken far closer, forgetting that a computer tomograph is needed to diagnose the nature of the craniocerebral trauma, which is practically absent in small clinics. And there, where they are, people "fast" does not carry, for the most different, mostly, paper reasons.
But computer tomography makes it clearerdetermine the nature of the lesion, the location of intracranial hematomas, the degree of spread of edema, etc. As a result, the surgeon works more accurately and purposefully, knowing in advance what problem he will face, which is always beneficial for the success of the operation and the patient's condition.
The basis of treatment is anti-edema therapy,elimination of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Hematoma is treated only surgically, for which, under general anesthesia, osteoplastic trepanation is performed. When edema of the brain patients after hospital treatment often have to be sent to VTEK (medical and labor expert commission), because the consequence of such a complication may be loss of ability to work.
In order for the treatment cycle to be complete,add more and rehabilitation. And this, as a rule, is running out for us. The threat of the patient's life has passed, the operations have been carried out and the person is left alone with his problems. But he still needs to restore his mental and motor functions. Of course, he receives recommendations from a doctor, but you can complete a complete rehabilitation course today in only a few institutions that can be counted on the fingers.
Based on the article "Closed injuries of the skull and brain."