Edema of the external opening of the urethra
What are diseases of the urethra?
The urethra (urethra) isThe tubular organ that connects the bladder and the external environment. In men and women, the urethra differs in length and width. The main function of the urethra is the excretion of urine from the body, in men it also opens the spermatic ducts through which the sperm leaves.
Diseases of the urethra (urethritis) are an inflammatory process, manifested by pain during urination and discharge from the urethra.
Urethritis can be acute, chronic, granular, premenstrual, senile and allergic.
Causes of diseases of the urethra
Urethritis is an infectious disease,caused by various fungi, viruses and bacteria. Rare are rare cases of allergic, radiation and toxic urethritis, not associated with infectious agents.
Inflammation of the urethra, independing on the type of pathogen, are divided into specific and nonspecific. The group of specific urethritis includes diseases caused by sexual infection (trichomonas, chlamydia, ureaplasma, gonococcus or mycoplasma). Nonspecific urethritis occurs due to the pathogenic effect of staphylococci, streptococci, fungi, E. coli and so on. Diseases are manifested and treated the same way, but with specific urethritis, it is necessary to examine all the sexual partners of the patient.
Why does the urethra become inflamed? This is always associated with a decrease in the immunity of its walls. The infection passes through the urethra constantly, getting there through the blood, from the intestines, skin or during sexual contact. But when the immune system ceases to cope with harmful organisms, inflammation occurs.
The disease can be provoked differentlyfactors, including especially dangerous hypothermia, genital tract injuries, physical overstrain, urolithiasis, unhealthy diet, habit of delaying urination, chronic inflammation in the body, various medical manipulations performed without observing sanitary standards (smear, catheterization).
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Types of diseases of the urethra
Acute urethritis most often due to exposureharmful microorganisms - gonococcus and trichomonads. It can also be caused by chemical irritants or injuries. Acute urethritis is manifested by burning in the urethra, pain, frequent urge to cope with a small need. From the inflamed and edematous urethra pus is allocated. Sometimes severe inflammation causes swelling in the external opening of the urethra. In such cases, the channels are opened, since the retention of urine can cause more serious symptoms (paraurethral abscesses, urogenital fistulae).
Acute urethritis is treated with anti-inflammatory therapy. Patients are shown antibiotics, sulfonamides, warm baths, drinking and rest. Also, acute urethritis excludes sex.
Chronic urethritis is both specific and nonspecific. Usually inflammation also affects the internal genitalia. The disease can occur due to birth trauma, damage to the urethra during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Causes can also be sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis). Chronic urethritis is characterized by unpleasant sensations in the urethra, pain in the back, sacrum or groin. Desires for urination are frequent, but the pain and burning do not go away. Sometimes patients develop urinary incontinence. Chronic urethritis is treated by eliminating the focus of infection. To do this, use antibiotics and chemotherapy.
Granular urethritis is a fairly common formdisease. The cause of it are diseases of genital organs of an inflammatory nature. Frequent urge to urinate is the main symptom of granular urethritis. Treatment of the disease has a favorable outcome. Therapy is carried out by means of stamping the urethral mucosa with a solution of silver or electrocoagulation. Granular urethritis can be repeated, therefore patients should undergo regular medical examination.
Senile urethritis is typical for women during menopause. Its symptoms are similar to manifestations of chronic urethritis, but are usually more durable and persistent. In women with senile urethritis, the mucous membrane of the vagina is atrophied, redness is noticeable, bleeding is possible. For treatment apply sedentary baths, vaginal suppositories and chemopreparations.
Premenstrual urethritis appears before menstruation. Usually, the symptoms of the disease (frequent urge to urinate) last for long, completely disappearing during menstruation.
Allergic urethritis occurs under the influence of a variety of substances,among which are some medicines and food products. The disease manifests itself with itching in the urethra, sensation of pressure. The urethra becomes swollen, the urine output stops. For treatment, urethral bougie and electrocoagulation are used.
Symptoms of urinary tract diseases
Common symptoms of urinary tract diseasesthe canal is the pain and burning of the urethra. Also, the patient can feel severe pain, itching, pressure and other kinds of discomfort during urination. Unpleasant sensations can extend to the lower back, the lower abdomen, the sacral region. A characteristic symptom is also purulent discharge from the urethra. Their abundance and quality depends on the type of pathogen.
It should be remembered that the disease has a propertyprogress, capturing the entire mucous membrane of the urethra. Symptoms become more pronounced, and after a while complications develop (testicular inflammation, urethral stricture, prostatitis, inflammation of the seminal vesicles, balanoposthitis, cystitis, etc.).
Treatment of urinary system diseases
Inflammatory diseases of the urethrasystems are treated with antibacterial therapy. Duration and intensity of treatment depend on the type and severity of the pathology. Most often, the treatment takes place at home. Hospitalization of the patient is most often due to purulent complications (urethral abscess). Sometimes it may be necessary to introduce various drugs into the urethra. When swelling and narrowing of the urethra apply bougie.